Categories covered in the report
|Tendency To Overeat|
Genes that regulate metabolic rate, energy expenditure and energy storage influence the tendency to store calories versus expending calories. Certain genes that once offered a survival advantage to our ancestors by storing calories for leaner times have now become liabilities in the age of surplus food availability. Your genetic profile influences the tendency of your body to store or expend more calories.
|Vitamin A requirements|
Vitamin A is required for clear vision, healthy skin and enhanced immunity. Animal sources provide Vitamin A in the form of retinol, while plant sources provide the precursor of Vitamin A in the form of carotenes, which must be converted to retinol. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin A in their diet due to less efficient conversion of carotenoids to retinol.
Phosphate is necessary for the formation of bones and teeth and is also used as a building block for several important molecules including DNA. People of certain genetic type need more phosphate in their diet as they have decreased phosphate levels in blood. Adeqtare intake of phosphate sources listed in the report is recommended for such individuals.
|Tendency to Overeat |
We analyze genes that are known to influence various hunger and satiety hormones such as Leptin, Ghrelin and Neuropeptides, which influence neurological aspects of feeding, producing effects such as persistent hunger, excessive snacking, preference for high calorific food and emotional eating.
|Vitamin B12 requirement |
Vitamin B12 is actively involved in red blood cell maturity and its deficiency can lead to pernicious anemia and general fatigue. It also helps in the removal of homocysteine from the cells. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin B12 in their diet due to lower levels in their body.
Selenium helps in the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes and in maintaining a healthy immune system. People of certain genetic type may benefit from selenium supplementation. Adequate intake of selenium sources listed in the report is recommended for such individuals.
|Tendency to consume fats |
Some people tend to over consume fatty foods due to a lower ability to perceive fats. In studies, people with lower fat perception ability were found to rate the fat content of food consistently lower than the actual fat content. Consuming high fat food can lead to weight gain & other health conditions.
|Vitamin B6 requirements |
Vitamin B6 is required for the proper utilization of sugars, fats and proteins in the body. It also protects the cells against glycation-induced damage. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin B6 in their diet as they lack the ability to fully metabolize this vitamin leading to its low levels in the body.
Zinc plays an important role in the proper functioning of the immune system, cell division, cell growth and in the breakdown of carbohydrates. Zinc is also important for the senses of taste and smell. Adeqtare intake of Zinc sources listed in the report is recommended.
|Tendency to consume sweet foods |
People of certain genetic type tend to over consume sweet foods due to low sensitivity to sweet taste, either due to lesser number or reduced sensitivity of sweet taste receptors on their tongue. Sugary foods are rich in calories and can cause insulin resistance, leading to weight gain and other health conditions. Sugary food and drink consumption has been linked to a wide variety of health conditions, iincluding cancers.
|Vitamin B9 requirements |
Vitamin B9 or folate plays a major role in DNA synthesis and repair. It is also essential for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Excess accumulation of homocysteine can be harmful. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin B9 in their diet due to lower folate levels and an inefficient enzymatic conversion of homocysteine to methionine.
Antioxidants play a key role in reducing the ill effects of 'free radicals' and thereby preventing premature aging, tissue damage and the onset of chronic diseases. They are present in many vegetables, fruits, cereals, green tea, etc. People of certain genetic type have lower efficiency to defend themselves against free radical damage and hence require more antioxidants in their diet.
|Tendency to prefer bitter food|
When food is chewed in the mouth, molecules such as phenylthiocarbamide bind to the taste receptors present in the tongue, which gives rise to the bitter taste. People of certain genetic type tend to avoid bitter vegetables due to higher sensitivity to bitter taste due to increased bitter taste receptors. Vegetables are low calorie and high fibre foods, which help in weight management and have several health benefits.
|Vitamin C |
Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant and is essential for enhanced immunity. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin C in their diet due to lower levels in the body. The human body cannot synthesize vitamin C, hence it must be consumed on a regular basis for proper physiologic functioning.
People of certain genetic type tend to consume more cups of coffee (>625mg of caffeine) a day. Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant and the most widely consumed psychoactive drug. Increased coffee consumption has been linked to improved health benefits for fast metabolizers of caffeine. Slow metabolizers are prone to increased risk of heart disease with higher caffeine intake.
|Carbohydrate Intake And Weight Gain Tendency |
Carbohydrates are the main sources of energy. About 45-
65% of total calories are the recommended intake of carbohydrates. Carbs are considered as weight increasing foods, but that's not true for everyone. People of certain genetic type tend to gain more weight upon consuming carbohydrate rich foods than others. These individuals can choose complex carbohydrates such as fruits, vegetables, legumes and whole grain.
|Vitamin D requirements |
Vitamin D is essential for the absorption of calcium from the intestine and also for enhanced immunity. Our body can synthesize sufficient Vitamin D from cholesterol when the skin is exposed to adequate amounts of sunlight. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin D in their diet due to its inefficient synthesis in our body.
People of certain genetic type are slow metabolizers of alcohol. These individuals may be at a higher risk of heart disease with increased alcohol intake.
| Fibre intake and Weight loss tendency|
Dietary fiber is found in whole grains, vegetables, fruits and legumes. It helps relieve constipation or prevent it while also helping in weight maintenance, reducing the risk for heart disease and diabetes. People of certain genetic type tend to benefit more in terms of weight loss with high fiber intake than others.
| Vitamin E requirements |
Vitamin E is an antioxidant and it defends our body against free radical damage and protects polyunsaturated fatty acids from oxidation. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin E in their diet due to inefficient transport and lower plasma levels of Vitamin E.
| Gluten sensitivity
People of certain genetic type may have lower tolerance to gluten and experience symptoms like abdominal cramps, bloating, “foggy mind”, depression, headaches, pain in the bone or joint, diarrhea or constipation and chronic fatigue when they include gluten in their diet. When gluten is removed from their diet, these symptoms subside.
|Saturated fat intake|
Saturated fats are a type of fat that are largely solid at room temperature as they are saturated with hydrogen molecules. The American Heart Association recommends no more than 5-6% of calories from saturated fat from the daily diet. People of certain genetic type tend to gain more weight upon consuming saturated fat rich foods than others. These individuals can better maintain weight by reducing the amount of saturated fats in their diets
| Vitamin K requirements |
Vitamin K plays an important role in helping blood clotting process and in preventing excessive bleeding. People of certain genetic type need enhanced Vitamin K supplementation to maintain adequate levels in blood.
| Lactose intolerance
People of certain genetic type stop producing the enzyme lactase in late childhood. Lactase is needed to breakdown the sugar lactose present in milk. These individuals may experience gastrointestinal symptoms upon consuming large quantities of milk as adults.
|MUFA intake and Weight Gain Tendency|
Monounsaturated fatty acids include omega-7 and omega 9 fatty acids. They are associated with anti-inflammatory properties, lowering blood pressure, maintaining triglyceride levels. MUFAs are also found to benefit skin health. People of certain genetic type tend to gain weight upon consuming MUFA rich foods than others. These individuals can better maintain weight by balancing the amount of MUFA in their diets.
|Calcium requirements |
Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body, essential for maintaining the strength and structure of bones and teeth and certain metabolic functions. Both higher and lower calcium levels can have important consequences for health. People of certain genetic type tend to have higher serum calcium levels and can restrict their calcium intake.
|Vitamin B2 requirements
Vitamin B2, also known as Riboflavin, acts as an antioxidant within the body. It plays a vital role in skin protection. Vitamin B2 deficiency damages the skin by causing cracked skin, itching and dermatitis. It also leads to elevated levels of homocysteine in the body. Susceptibility to this deficiency increases with age, illness and alcohol consumption. People of certain genetic types need more vitamin B2.
|PUFA intake and Weight Gain Tendency|
Omega 3s are important for brain, heart, skin, bone and vision health. Omega 6s also help hair growth. People of certain genetic type tend to gain weight upon consuming PUFA rich foods than others. These individuals can better maintain weight by lowering the amount of PUFA in their diets or increasing physical activity. Importantly, targeting the Omega3: Omega6 ratio is recommended, with preference towards Omega 3.
Choline is a macronutrient which plays an important role in liver function, nerve function, normal brain development, muscle movement and in supporting a healthy metabolism. People with a genetic variant in the PEMT gene and other genes are likely to experience adverse health consequences when fed a low choline diet. Hence supplementation is recommended for such individuals.
|Alcohol flush reaction
People of certain genetic type may experience symptoms like redness of the face and neck upon consuming alcohol due to reduced clearance of acetaldehyde which is produced in the body upon consuming alcohol. Though alcohol avoidance per limitation is recommended for all, people with the alcohol flush genotype may be at higher health risk upon alcohol consumption
|Protein Intake And Weight Loss Tendency|
Protein is an important building block for bones, skin, blood, cartilage and muscles. Nails, hair, enzymes, hormones and other body chemicals consist of large amounts of protein. Moreover, our body utilises protein to build and repair tissues. People of certain genetic type tend to benefit more in terms of weight maintenance with high protein intake than others
|Copper requirements |
Copper is necessary for the absorption of iron, in the synthesis of haemoglobin and in the maintenance of connective tissue, brain, heart and other organs. People of certain genetic types need more copper.
Sodium is an essential electrolyte which regulates osmosis, maintains fluid levels, plays an important role in enzyme functions and contraction of muscles. Most people consume far in excess of AHA recommended 2300 mg. People of certain genetic type will have higher blood pressure in response to high salt consumption. Nearly 50% of hypertensive people are salt-sensitive to hypertension.
| Tendency To Regain Weight |
People of certain genetic type tend to quickly regain weight after having been on a weight loss program, while others might maintain weight loss over a period of time. These individuals need to continue adherence to exercise and diet program to maintain optimal weight.
| Iron requirements |
Iron is essential for oxygen transport through the blood. Its deficiency leads to anemia. People of certain genetic type need more iron in their diet as they have reduced ability to absorb iron from the diet.
| Magnesium requirements
Magnesium helps in maintaining normal nerve and muscle function and helps maintain strong bones. It is also important for regulating blood glucose levels and in the production of energy and amino acids.
The maximum benefits from knowing your genetics will be visible when you start using the pointers by becoming physically active, eat balanced meals and get adequate sleep. Using the knowledge of your genetic makeup will help you make better food choices or understand why you have always preferred certain types of food. Irrespective of the genetics everyone will be healthy if they have balanced food and exercise habits.
- Xcode does not provide any direct medical advice to individuals and the reports are to be interpreted only by qualified medical/healthcare professionals.
- Genetic information must always be considered in conjunction with other information about your health like lifestyle, family history, biomedical data, nutrition, physical activity etc.
- Genetic information is subject to revision based on latest advances in scientific research.
- Genetic interpretations are based on the result of population studies and what applies to the whole population may not be true to an individual.