Categories covered in the report
| Glycation protection |
Glucose is the main source of energy for our body and when it is not broken down properly, it binds to collagen in the skin leading to abnormal structural and tissue impairment. This results in the production of advanced glycation products (AGEs) through a process called glycation, which is shown to be associated with accelerated aging. Glycation can lead to hardening of the skin and an inability of the skin to regenerate, leading to wrinkles and laxity. People of certain genetic types are at an increased risk of developing AGE than others.
|Vitamin B2 deficiency|
Vitamin B2, also known as Riboflavin, acts as an antioxidant within the body. It plays a vital role in skin protection. Vitamin B2 deficiency damages the skin by causing cracked skin, itching and dermatitis. It also leads to elevated levels of homocysteine in the body. Susceptibility to this deficiency increases with age, illness and alcohol consumption. People of certain genetic types need more vitamin B2.
Sun spots (Actinic Keratoses), also known as solar lentigines, are darkened spots on the skin, caused by prolonged exposure to UV radiations. They are caused by a local growth of pigment-producing skin cells in response to ultraviolet radiation. Solar lentigines are benign, but they do indicate excessive sun exposure, a risk factor for the development of skin cancer. Solar lentigines most commonly occur in older adults, particularly those who sunburn easily and fail to tan. Women are particularly susceptible.
Eczema (atopic dermatitis) is a common skin disease that affects a large percentage of the world’s population. Eczema can be caused due to a variety of factors like genetics, environmental factors and abnormalities in immune responses. People of certain genetic types have a higher risk of being susceptible to eczema and may experience the following symptoms: skin inflammation, itching, redness and swelling.
|Vitamin B12 deficiency|
Vitamin B12 is actively involved in red blood cell maturity and its deficiency can lead to pernicious anemia and general fatigue. It also helps in the removal of homocysteine from the cells. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin B12 in their diet due to lower levels in the body.
Tanning is a response to the sun’s ultraviolet radiation resulting in an increased production of melanin. This is an adaptation to protect skin from damage as the increase in melanin darkens the skin. We test for variations in genes that are associated with the production of melanin. Those who have difficulty tanning are at higher risks of sunburn, sun spots, wrinkles, folate loss and melanoma while individuals who tan easily are at risk of vitamin D deficiency as they may derive less vit D from sun exposure.
Contact dermatitis is a type of eczema which is triggered by contact with a particular allergen or substance. A high proportion of individuals affected by this condition are industrial workers in health, skin-care, beauty, food industry and metal-related occupations. Normally the symptoms of contact dermatitis will not appear on first contact with an allergen, but symptoms could develop on subsequent contact due to sensitisation.
|Vitamin B6 deficiency|
Vitamin B6 is required for the proper utilization of sugars, fats and proteins in the body. It also protects the cells against glycation-induced damage. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin B6 in their diet as they lack the ability to fully metabolize this vitamin leading to its low levels in the body.
Wrinkles are a sign of skin aging and are caused by a variety of factors such as genetics, skin pigmentation, dehydration, UV exposure, smoking and alcohol abuse. They are accompanied by the natural aging process and occur when collagen and elastin in the skin become weak and begin to break down. This results in the damage of skin cells.
Psoriasis is a non-contagious chronic skin condition that produces plaques of thickened, scaling skin. It is one of the most baffling and persistent skin disorders. Generalized psoriasis is an inherited autoimmune disease. Men are generally more prone to the condition. Genetics play a major role in the development of psoriasis.
|Vitamin C deficiency|
Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant and is essential for enhanced immunity. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin C in their diet due to lower levels in the body.
|UV rays protection
Ultra-violet rays (UVR) are harmful radiations, naturally emitted by the sun. Being abundant in the environment, they can contribute to a variety of skin disorders including melanoma (skin cancer). Our skin’s response to UVR is determined by the melanin pigments present in the epidermis. Melanin protects our skin from the harmful effects of UV radiation.
Rosacea is a common skin condition which affects the face and neck. The US National Rosacea association has stated that more than 16 million Americans suffer from this condition. This is a chronic condition which cannot be cured but it can be controlled. People with a lighter skin tone exhibit symptoms of Rosacea more distinctly though it can affect anybody. People of certain genetic types are at a higher risk of being susceptible to rosacea and may experience the following symptoms: facial flushing, redness, pimples, pustules and dilated blood vessels.
|Vitamin D deficiency|
Vitamin D is essential for the absorption of calcium from the intestine and also for enhanced immunity. Our body can synthesize sufficient Vitamin D from cholesterol when the skin is exposed to adequate amounts of sunlight. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin D in their diet due to its inefficient synthesis in our body.
Cellulite is the accumulation of subcutaneous fat and uneven fibrous tissue, leading to a bumpy appearance of skin. It occurs more commonly among women than men . Cellulite affects 85-98% of post-pubertal females of all races. Genetic predisposition, hormonal changes, gender, ethnicity, age and weight changes contribute to risk of developing cellulite. People of certain genetic types are at a higher risk of developing cellulite.
Dry skin (Xerosis) is characterized by rough, dry and scaly skin. It is a common condition, mainly observed in winter. Xerosis can be caused by a number of factors like cold and dry climate, frequent bathing, genetics and other conditions like eczema. Ichthyosis is a hereditary disorder resulting in xerosis. Dry skin develops due to a decrease in the natural oils in the outer layer of skin, which makes the skin lose water. People of certain genetic types may have a higher risk of having dry skin (xerosis)and may experience the following symptoms: dry and itchy skin on the arms and legs, fine cracks on the skin, skin that feels tight especially after a bath or white flaky skin.
|Vitamin E deficiency|
Vitamin E is an antioxidant and it defends our body against free radical damage and protects polyunsaturated fatty acids from oxidation. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin E in their diet due to inefficient transport and lower plasma levels of Vitamin E.
Stretch marks, also known as striae distensae, typically appear as bands of parallel lines on the skin. They are caused by a variety of factors such as pregnancy, puberty, genetic factors, rapid weight gain or loss. Being a woman increases your risk of developing stretch marks. Stretch marks are a result of skin stretching and an increase in the hormone cortisone in our system. They are not dangerous and usually disappear over time. People of certain genetic types have a higher risk of developing stretch marks and may experience the following symptoms: streaks of red, pink or purple covering large parts of their body.
|Vitamin B9 deficiency|
Vitamin B9 or folate plays a major role in DNA synthesis and repair. It is also essential for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Excess accumulation of homocysteine can be harmful. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin B9 in their diet due to lower folate levels and an inefficient enzymatic conversion of homocysteine to methionine.
Antioxidants play a key role in reducing the ill effects of 'free radicals' and thereby preventing premature aging, tissue damage and the onset of chronic diseases. They are present in many vegetables, fruits, cereals, green tea, etc. People of certain genetic type have lower efficiency to defend themselves against free radical damage and hence require more antioxidants in their diet.
Varicose veins occur when your veins become enlarged, dilated, and overfilled with blood. They are dark purple to blue veins under the skin on the back of the legs that often appear twisted and bulged like cords. Some people experience pain, heaviness and itching in the legs. About 10% of the affected people develop skin changes like pigmentation or eczema. It can subsequently impair the quality of life.
|Vitamin A deficiency|
Vitamin A is required for clear vision, healthy skin and enhanced immunity. Animal sources provide Vitamin A in the form of retinol, while some plant sources provide the precursor of Vitamin A in the form of carotenes, which in turn must be converted to retinol. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin A in their diet due to less efficient conversion of carotenoids to retinol.
Freckles, also known as ephelides, are small brown spots that are commonly found in the face, neck and other sun exposed areas of the skin. Freckles are harmless and are more common among light skinned people. People of certain genetic types are at a higher risk of being susceptible to freckles and may experience the following symptoms: flat , circular spots of melanin(freckles) on the face.
|Vitamin K deficiency
Vitamin K plays an important role in helping blood clotting process and in preventing excessive bleeding. People of certain genetic type need enhanced Vitamin K supplementation to maintain adequate levels in blood.
Acne (acne vulgaris) occurs commonly among teenagers and young adults.Adults may also suffer from acne due to hormonal imbalances. Nearly 3 million people suffer from acne with 20% of incidences occurring in adults.This condition happens when dead skin cells and oil from skin clog hair follicles.Genetics, hormones and stress play a role in the risk of acne.
The maximum benefits from knowing your genetics will be visible when you start using the pointers by becoming physically active, eat balanced meals and get adequate sleep. Using the knowledge of your genetic makeup will help you make better food choices or understand why you have always preferred certain types of food. Irrespective of the genetics everyone will be healthy if they have balanced food and exercise habits.
- Xcode does not provide any direct medical advice to individuals and the reports are to be interpreted only by qualified medical/healthcare professionals.
- Genetic information must always be considered in conjunction with other information about your health like lifestyle, family history, biomedical data, nutrition, physical activity etc.
- Genetic information is subject to revision based on latest advances in scientific research.
- Genetic interpretations are based on the result of population studies and what applies to the whole population may not be true to an individual.