Freckles have been a source of admiration, envy, and curiosity for many generations. But how do they form? Why do some people have freckles on their faces and others do not? Along with sun exposure, your genes also play a role in the development of freckles.
Freckles are small brownish dot-like structures seen on sun-exposed areas (mainly the face) in some people.
During sun exposure, a type of skin cell called melanocytes produces a pigment called melanin. Melanin produces hair, eye, and skin pigmentation.
If the melanocytes produce melanin evenly, you get a tan when you’re in the sun. But in some people, more pigment is produced in some areas than others, which results in freckles.
Certain genes regulate the function of melanocytes. Thus, these genes also play an important role in skin pigmentation. Any changes in these genes can put a person at a higher risk for freckles, sun spots, and tanning.
For example, a gene called MC1R produces the receptor for the melanocyte-stimulating hormone, one of the two hormones that regulate pigmentation.
Certain changes in MC1R results in lower stimulation of pheomelanin (the lighter pigment). This results in the overproduction of eumelanin (the darker pigment) in certain areas, leading to freckles.
The MC1R gene also influences the chances of someone having red-coloured hair. In some people, the production of eumelanin is much lower compared to pheomelanin. This results in light-coloured hair.
In recent years, DNA ancestry test has become increasingly popular in India. With the increasing availability and accessibility to DNA testing, genetic genealogy has become a topic of growing interest. Knowing one's ancestry can help people better understand their heritage, gain valuable insights into history, and connect with distant relatives. It is a powerful tool for discovering one's identity. From celebrities to everyday citizens, many are investing in tests to find out their ethnicity and where their ancestors lived centuries ago. In recent years, Indian companies have started providing DNA ancestry tests to individuals interested in exploring their genes and uncovering their origins.
Have you ever been curious about who your ancestors were or where they first existed?
Or which parts of the world did they travel through for better livelihoods?
An ancestry DNA test provides clues into the journey our ancestors had taken thousands and even centuries of years ago.
Patterns of genetic variations in your DNA are the key to identifying the ancestry components.
As we know, we get our DNA from our b parents.
The human genome has 23 pairs of chromosomes, in which each of the pairs is from your father and mother.
Certain portions of this genome are conserved (or retained) by specific ancestral populations and are passed from one generation to the next.
Identifying these conserved regions is key to determining a person’s ancestry.
Additionally, there is mitochondrial DNA that a person inherits from their mother.
̃The mitochondrial DNA tells you the story of your maternal lineage, tracing back several thousands of years.
If you are a male, you have a Y chromosome inherited from your father.
Chromosome Y traces back your paternal lineage.
Xcode Life’s ancestry report covers various aspects of ancestry:
The global ancestry prediction maps you to specific global populations.
The global ancestry report comes with a map highlighting your different ancestries.
It also includes a table indicating your ancestry percentages.
A haplogroup is a group of people who share a common ancestry genetically, either on the maternal or the paternal side.
Some haplogroups belong to well-known ancestral lines like the Vikings and the Celts.
A group of individuals belonging to the same haplogroup can trace their roots back to a common ancestor.
The maternal haplogroup is assigned based on a type of DNA called mitochondrial DNA, which you inherit only from your mother.
Your maternal haplogroup is the same as every other family member on your mom's side - your mother, brother, sister, aunt, and grandmother.
The report indicates your maternal haplogroup, along with some information about its origin and distribution.
Also called the Y-chromosome haplogroup, the paternal haplogroup gets passed on from the fathers to sons.
Around 95% of the Y chromosome remains unchanged across generations.
This is used to find your paternal haplogroup.
If you are a female customer and would like to know your paternal haplogroup, you can have one of your male relatives take the test.
The Indian ancestry report maps your similarity to various groups in the Indian population.
The Indian populations currently included in the report are
This section also includes an Indian ancestry map and a pie chart indicating your Indian ancestry components.
The ancestry report also includes an archaic human content section.
This section provides fascinating insights into how much percentage of your DNA matches that of the archaic humans, the Neanderthals, and Denisovans.
Your results include the number and percentage of Neanderthal genetic variants you carry, along with the average number of Neanderthal variants found in the South Asian population for comparison purposes.
The same information is also provided for your Denisovans results.
DNA Ancestry testing in India can cost anywhere between Rs. 13,000 to Rs. 25,000.
The cost can vary depending on the following:
Xcode Life offers the most affordable and precise DNA ancestry test on the market.
Learn more: https://www.xcode.in/ancestry/
Some companies offering Ancestry DNA tests are