Did you know that your 23andMe raw data (v5 chip) contains around 650,000 genetic markers? Ancestry reports only use 0.01% of this information. There is plenty of more information about your health, nutrition, fitness, allergy, MTHFR and specific genes like COMT, and APOE in your raw data. After finding out your ancestry information on the 23andMe site, you can download your raw data and use it to find out more about yourself.
To login to your 23andMe account follow the steps given below:
1: Go to https://www.23andMe.com
2: On the top right-hand corner of the page click on “Sign In”
3: Enter your login details: email address and password
4: Click on “Sign in” again
5: You will reach your account dashboard
You may also be interested in: How To Get The Most Out Of Your 23andMe DNA Raw Data
To sign out of your 23andMe account follow the steps given below:
1: Move your cursor to the top right-hand corner of the screen where you can see your username.
2: Click on the drop-down arrow
3: From the drop-down menu choose “Sign out”
You have now successfully logged out of your 23andMe account
Also read “How to sign in to your Ancestry DNA account“
The goal of this study to understand the variations in symptoms (ranging from mild to severe) in people affected with the novel coronavirus.) In order to participate, you must be 18 years or older and must live in the United States. After providing consent, you will need to fill out a survey post which you will receive a kit to collect your saliva.
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In September 2019, MyHeritage made an official announcement on their website about their acquisition of Promethease and SNPedia. “This marks our first consumer health acquisition and our 10th acquisition since MyHeritage’s founding. Promethease will be made free through the end of 2019, and SNPedia will remain a free wiki resource for academic and non-profit use,” quotes the article.
SNPedia, launched in 2006, is a wiki-based website that keeps track and contains information about all single nucleotide polymorphisms. It links these genetic variants to medical conditions. MyHeritage plans to maintain SNPedia as a free resource under the same terms and will utilize this comprehensive knowledge base to enhance future versions of MyHeritage’s DNA health products.
Promethease is a computer program developed by the SNPedia team, where users can get a DNA report with their DNA raw data. The Promethease reports are generated by taking into account all medical and scientific literature. Promethease currently charges $12 for its service and also lets their consumer store their DNA data.
Following this announcement, MyHeritage is transforming Promethease into a free service, effective today, and this free promotion will run until the end of 2019. MyHeritage intends to keep Promethease separate from its MyHeritage DNA health product line. Unlike Promethease, MyHeritage does not provide any health reports based on DNA data uploaded from other vendors. All of MyHeritage DNA’s health reports are based on clinical validation of the underlying DNA data.
As of November 1st, 2019, the DNA raw data of the existing Non-European Promethease users will be copied to MyHeritage along with a new account accessible only by the customer. This account also comes with free services like ethnicity estimates and DNA matching for relatives. If you are not interested in your DNA data and reports being copied to MyHeritage, you can delete it from the Promethease server by November 1st, 2019.
People who wish to take a genetic health test or receive health reports are encouraged to purchase the MyHeritage DNA Health+Ancestry test, which is based on clinically validated genetic markers and robust scientific research. Promethease has sent out emails to all its users regarding the details of the acquisition bu MyHeritage for non-Europen users and the instructions for opting-in for its European users.
MyHeritage was founded in 2003 by Gilad Japhet, a software engineer. MyHeritage’s DNA testing service may be similar to that of its older rival, AncestryDNA, but it differs in one important way: It has most of its user base in Europe. The company is currently testing 42 ethnic regions and has around 4 million customers, making it a compelling choice for genealogical testing.
Priced at $79, the test is more affordable than many others on the market, especially considering that it not only offers ethnicity analysis but includes a family finder feature. The shipping costs $12; however, if you order two kits, you get half-price shipping. If you order three or more, you get free shipping.
The kit costs $199 (excluding shipping charges), for only 36 health reports. This kit includes ethnicity estimate and DNA matches section as well. You can get the kit for a discount price of $99. Valid till March 31, 2020.
Learn more about the MyHeritage DNA Health test in this video.
To order a kit, you need to make an account with MyHeritage, which would also be used to deliver my results. The payment methods include PayPal and the option to pay directly with your credit/debit card. Once you place your order, you will receive your DNA kit within seven days.
If you order a health kit, you will need to answer a Health Questionnaire, which an independent physician will evaluate
Instead of collecting your saliva, MyHeritage DNA has two cheek swabs and vials you send off. Here’s what’s in the kit:
MyHeritage has a turnaround of 4 to 6 weeks after the sample arrives at the lab. That’s faster than competitors AncestryDNA and 23andMe, which require 6 to 8 weeks. The results are sent via an email to the registered email address.
The ancestry report contains two main parts, ‘Ethnicity Estimate’ and ‘DNA Matches’, each of which had several different features within it.
Ethnicity Estimate is a detailed breakdown of your unique DNA composition. Your ethnicity breakdown, covering 42 ethnicities from around the world, is present both as a map and as a percentage in your report.
DNA Matches is a technology that lets you connect with your ‘relatives’. This involves the comparison of data from autosomal DNA test results and family trees to identify shared genetic sequences that indicate a family relationship. MyHeritage also allows you to upload your family tree from an existing genealogy program.
MyHeritage DNA Health results have two parts. With the ancestry part, you can connect with your relatives and learn more about your ethnic origin.
The health part helps you learn about your genetic risk for various health conditions like heart disease and breast cancer. The report also reveals details about the variants that may not affect you but can be passed on to your children and can affect them, if your partner is also a carrier of variants for the same condition.
The following blog by MyHeritage covers in-depth about the Health Report and also contains a sample report for each category.
This is a feature that the company does not advertise about, but one that can be very useful. You can download your DNA raw data file. You can follow these simple steps to download your data:
Important: The link is only valid for 24 hours. If you haven’t used the link within 24 hours, you will need to start the process again from step 1.
MyHeritage LIVE brings together family history enthusiasts, top international experts, and MyHeritage staff for two days of fascinating lectures covering the latest topics in genealogy and DNA. Each year, hundreds of MyHeritage users from around the world attend. MyHeritage LIVE 2020 will take place in October 2020, at the Hilton Tel Aviv. Set in landscaped Independence Park.
Upload the file to Xcode Life to get insights into 700+health-related traits at a 55% discount!
Ancestry tracing provides people with information about where they hail from and also who their ancestors are. With high-scale migrations that took place in history, many a time, people find peace in knowing about their roots, their family members, and the culture and commonalities that they share with others who have the same origin as them. One such company that is offering this specifically for people of African descent is African Ancestry Inc.
The company was founded by Dr. Rick Kittles and Gina Paige and is based out of Silver Spring, Maryland. African Ancestry is the world leader in ancestry tracing for people of color, especially those of African descent. The company has helped over 7,50,000 people trace their roots and their family tree using the company's database of over 30,000 African DNA samples.
African Ancestry is one of its kind company which helps people determine not just their country of origin but also their ethnicity. The advantage that African Ancestry has in the field is that they have the largest database of African DNA samples. The reason that they have such an extensive database is because of their aim to help black people determine their origin and their ancestors.
Unlike companies like 23andMe, who give you health traits and genetic susceptibility as one of their main offerings, African Ancestry’s sole purpose is to help people find their roots. The company allows one to trace their maternal as well as paternal lineages.
African Ancestry offers three test kits, namely MatriClan Test Kit, PatriClan Test Kit, and Family celebration package. Unlike other DNA ancestry tracing companies, African Ancestry Inc. does not use the admixture analysis technique. This is because the company doesn’t run extensive tests on autosomal DNA but relies mainly on the DNA found in the mitochondria and the Y chromosomes.
This test is for both men and women. The test traces maternal ancestry by analyzing the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) inherited exclusively from mothers. In fact, you share the same mtDNA as your mother, grandmother, great grandmother and so on. According to the website, 92% of MatriClan's results are African.
If in case, your results are not African, the company will determine whether your maternal ancestry is European, Asian, Middle Eastern, or Indigenous American, but you will not provide a country or a group.
Results include HVS1, HVS2 and HVS3 designations and haplogroup.
This test is for men only. The test analyzes the Y chromosome that men inherit exclusively from their fathers. Women cannot take the PatriClan Test. However, women have the option to trace their paternal lineage by having a male relative from their father’s side take the test. According to the website, 65% of PatriClan's results are African.
If in case, your results are not African, the company will determine whether your maternal ancestry is European, Asian, Middle Eastern, or Indigenous American.
The Family Celebration Package includes:
The Tshirts you receive will reflect either the country of ancestry or the African Ancestry Map design. The countries included are Angola, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal, and Sierra Leone.
Other than the DNA test kits, you can also shop from their collection of Ancestry Pendants, Ancestry T-shirts, and other Ancestry gifts.
Depending on the test you purchase, African Ancestry analyzes either the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) you inherit from your mother, the Y chromosome that men inherit from their fathers, or the autosomal DNA that you inherit from both parents. To get started, you will need to send a simple swab sample from inside your cheek. After they receive your sample, the geneticists at the company run tests to determine if you have African DNA. The detailed report provided by them mentions the country of the individual's origin from the African continent and which ethnic group you share your origins with. In case the individual has no African DNA, the company will help him/her know if they have European, Middle-Eastern, Asian, or Native American DNA.
Once an individual orders the DNA test from the African Ancestry website, it takes about eight weeks to receive the report. Along with the test reports, one also gets a certificate of ancestry provided by the company, the printout of their DNA sequence, a brochure that uses a map to scientifically explain the individual’s place of origin, the path of migration of his/her genes, a digital ancestry guide and also a membership to their exclusive online community.
There are several online reviews on various websites about what people have said about African Ancestry and their DNA testing. In fact, many famous people such as Oprah Winfrey, Morgan Freeman, Maya Angelou have tried African Ancestry DNA testing.
African Ancestry allows DNA portability in case one has already purchased a DNA analysis done by another company. In this case, one can upload their DNA results on their website and pay a lesser amount ($210) than the original cost of their test. They do not provide a list of accepted raw data providers, but they do have specific requirements for the genetic data they will accept and evaluate. You can learn more about those requirements here.
African Ancestry Inc. is doing a phenomenal job by bridging the gap between people of African descent and their origins.
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Family Tree DNA (FTDNA), established in the year 2000, is continuously regarded as one of the most trusted and reliable providers of DNA testing services. The company started out offering only Y-DNA, mtDNA, and Cohanim DNA tests, as the company’s focus was to help people knock down brick walls in their paper research.
Fast forward to the year 2010, the company began to offer autosomal testing with its ‘Family Finder’ product, which still continues to be the leading choice among professional genealogists when it comes to DNA testing. This product has attracted a lot of genealogists, and thus, there is plenty of online support when it comes to understanding and using your test results.
There are three types of DNA tests used in genealogy:
This test focuses on the autosomal DNA, which is inherited across generations.
Family Finder by Family Tree DNA examines over 50,000 markers to trace the ancestral line of the user. The analysis provides details of the user’s ethnic origin as well. FTDNA uses a proprietary algorithm that discovers other individuals that may have a common ancestor within five generations on either side of the user’s family. Not only does the test reveal the names of the individuals who are closely related, but it also provides email addresses to aid in initiating contact. Since personal information is involved, the user is only matched with others who’ve also opted for the test.
Anyone who wants to learn more about their family’s heritage, culture, or ethnic background can take up this test. The test matches the user to close relatives and breaks down their ancestor’s origin. This test reveals the user’s and their family’s unique genetic identity.
There are two ways to provide information to this test. The user can either purchase the kit, follow the instructions and send it back to Family Tree; or, the user can transfer data from another genetic testing company. FTDNA currently accepts data from 23andme, MyHeritage, and AncestryDNA.
Once the results are ready, the user can access their full genetic profile. It is better to purchase a kit by FTDNA so that relevant information that may be missing in the kits from the other companies can be provided. The kit can be purchased on the website, and the basic test is around $80. The kit contains two cheek swabs, two vials, a specimen bag, a return mailer, instructions, and a registration form. The time taken for results varies with the type of test chosen. A basic test would take 4 to 6 weeks, whereas more complex tests would take up to 8 weeks.
The results given in this report are:
There is another feature called ‘Chromosome Browser.’ This allows the user to explore, zoom, and download details of each segment of DNA, as well as compare these segments to matching genetic profiles. There is also scope to contribute to genealogical projects. The service uses the customer’s surname to try and trace lineages.
The Y chromosome is exclusive to the male gender and is often passed down from the father to the son without much changes in the genetic makeup. Y-DNA tests the Y chromosome to investigate the male’s paternal family line. A person who takes up this test will also receive something called a ‘Y-DNA haplogroup’ which uncovers the paternal heritage going back to Africa.
The following are the single tests option available in Y-DNA test:
The difference between these three tests is the number of markers taken into account for the analysis. Family Tree DNA recommends Y-37 as a good place to start and examine close relationships. Y-111 analyzes more markers and providers more refined results, including matches. The Y-700 test is more ideal for expert users, as it provides over 200,000 SNPs and additional STRs; however, these markers do not provide more refined matching.
mtDNA stands for mitochondrial DNA. This DNA is passed on by a mother to her children. Though both the genders receive this DNA from their mothers, men cannot pass this on to their children. This test allows you to explore your direct maternal line and geographic origins. mtDNA haplogroup uncovers your maternal heritage going back to Africa.
This feature, which is available for all users who have taken the mtDNA test, tells the story of your maternal ancestry, and is a fun way to share your results with friends and family. This video helps break down the basic concepts of your mtDNA results with ‘your specific story’ in mind. Being customizable, this feature lets you choose your avatar and fill in a little info about yourself. Take a look at the sample video below.
FTDNA is a really good choice for people who want to learn more about their ancestry.
However, there are also some disadvantages to this test:
23andMe and FTDNA enable customers to connect to close relatives. While 23andMe’s DNA relatives came out in 2009, FTDNA released Family Finder a bit later in 2010. Although FTDNA has a smaller database, the services it provides surpasses that of 23andMe. The features include maternal and paternal lineage tracking, a variety of tests, and a detailed report.
FTDNA provides a very easy-to-use DNA analysis kits to users who want to learn about their ancestry. With regard to privacy, FTDNA provides options to opt-out of law enforcement matching. However, it is quite difficult to completely delete genetic data or destroy a sample. If a customer decides to do so, they will have to contact customer service.
With the tests and services provided, the user can learn about their maternal and paternal ancestry, potential migration paths of their ancestors- including occupation and location. Finally, FTDNA enables users to contact close relatives to promote positive relationships. With other features like accepting raw DNA files from other DNA testing services and wellness reports, FTDNA is a really good choice for DNA analysis services.
Upload your DNA raw data to Xcode Life to get insights into 700+ health-related traits!
Put your DNA raw data to good use.
You have close 700,000 genetic markers in your DNA raw data. Ancestry reports use only 0.01% of this information.
There are free and paid tools that can help you tap into this source to provide you with lots of interesting and meaningful information. In this article we will cover all these tools.
Gene Tool is a free tool by Xcode Life that enables you to inspect your raw data files from Ancestry DNA, 23andme and My Heritage. Using this tool you can easily find out the genotypes for specific rsIDs, search for gene names and names of conditions that you may be interested in.
The most interesting part of the tool is that it provides you with a summary of your raw data: number of markers, chip type, and other basic information about your file.
Most people take an ancestry test and leave it at that. That is such a waste!
When you do an ancestry saliva test, a RAW Data file is created from your sample. This raw data file has close to 700000 DNA markers which cover your ancestry information.
But more importantly, these 700000 markers contain a lot of health and wellness information about you. If you are not using this file, then you are leaving a lot on the table.
Read below to find out all the amazing information you can uncover using this 23andme Ancestry DNA raw data file.
But, first you need to get this file in your hand. This is how you can do it:
Congratulations on downloading your RAW data file. You can now head over to a variety of free and paid tools to unravel the secrets held in your DNA data about your health and wellness.
There are many third-party tools and DNA upload sites that interpret your DNA raw data for you.
Some of the well known DNA raw data analysis tools are Xcode Life, Genetic Genie, Stratagene, and GEDMatch.
Some of these accept raw data from only 23andme while others like Xcode Life accept from nearly all ancestry DNA companies, including Whole Genome Sequencing data.
So if you have your raw data from any one of these companies, you can head over to Xcode.life do get information on more than 700+ traits and conditions relating to your health.
Typically, companies provide reports on: Ancestry, Health predisposition, Nutrition, Fitness, Skin care, Allergies, Mental health, personality, Traits, Personalized Medicine and other topics.
Raw data from 23andMe, AncestryDNA, or Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) contain ~600,000 genetic markers.
In a table at the end of this article, you’ll find companies that provide raw data analysis and interpretation services.
The table summarizes the features they offer, prices and how these companies compare with each other.
Some of these are free but very basic (you get what you pay for!), while some charge a lot for elaborate fitness programs. Yet, some others have reasonable pricing.
Here is the list of all possible reports, health, and ancestry, that you can by letting third-party raw data analysis tools to browse your raw data:
You do not need to read your 23andMe raw data by yourself. But, if you are curious, the raw data files have 4 columns of data that kind of looks like computer code.
The report providers translate this data into useful human readable reports for you. You just have to upload your raw data and download your results.
There are companies like Xcode Life and others that specialize in providing you various reports based on your raw data from ancestry data providers such as 23andMe, AncestryDNA.com, or Family Tree DNA (FTDNA).
If you have been actively researching about which tools you can use for raw data analysis, you may have come across some blogs with a list of various sites offering the service.
Some of these blogs have a lot of text and don’t allow for simple and quick comparison across companies.
That is what I have attempted to do here in a table format.
The best third-party tools or companies providing DNA raw data analysis services are listed below:
[table id=12 responsive=scroll column_width="30%|30%|40%"/]
Xcode Life is a global genetics and bioinformatics company that specializes in 23andMe raw data analysis, but also analyzes raw data from all major international data providers such as Family Tree DNA (FTDNA), AncestryDNA, and Helix among several others.
Xcode provides a variety of expertly curated reports, starting at $20, including 23andMe health reports, nutrition, medication sensitivity (precision medicine), fitness, allergy, skin, personality, and other custom reports.
Above all, these reports come with a specific recommendation for people with your genetic type, all of which are delivered in under 24 hours.
Moreover, counseling is also available upon request.
In addition, Xcode Life also provides reports to individuals and professional practitioners such as physicians, surgeons, nutritionists, sports trainers, chiropractic, and other professionals.
Get your 23andMe raw data analyzed here.
Promethease is a software program that was developed by SNPedia to perform raw data analysis.
It uses your 23andMe raw data to generate largely disease-based reports.
You will get to know which mutation confers what risk.
They charge $12 per report.
However, it is to be noted that they may be quite technical for most people unless they have expert knowledge of polymorphisms and biostatistics.
This literature retrieval system that analyzes your 23andMe, FTDNA, or AncestryDNA.com raw data and then builds a report based on the vast SNPedia database.
Reports contain information about health, precision medicine as well as some other traits.
The report gives you health information regarding your genetic risks for certain illnesses such as Alzheimer’s.
In spite of its popularity, the scientific rigor of Promethease is questioned often due to its reliance on SNPedia that is a Wikipedia-like repository of scientific literature.
MyHeritage offered Promethease free of charge through the end of 2019 and continues to maintain
SNPedia as a free resource for academic and non-profit users.
For Non-European users, the DNA raw data will be shifted to MyHeritage into new accounts which will be created for them.
However, the users will retain the ownership of their DNA raw data file and are free to delete it from MyHeritage's server.
As the name indicates Athletigen does “athletic profiling” of the 23andMe raw data analysis.
They accept 23andMe data, but also offer their own kit which is quite expensive.
They provide insights into the exercises that are best suited to you.
For instance, this includes aspects of power, endurance, muscle type, and recovery time.
Athletigen has a team of researchers for analyzing and interpreting genetic data.
They use a combination of current studies and their own research based on the samples they collect from the athletes they test.
Their genetic tests reveal insights, such as a heightened risk of injury, nutritional demands, and allow the fitness trainers of an athlete to adjust his or her workout plan and nutrition in accordance with these insights.
However, it seems to be a report for hardcore athletes.
So, if you are a professional, this could be the report for you.
Genetic genie provides a free methylation and detox report after 23andMe raw data analysis.
This tool uses your 23andMe results to perform a methylation gene analysis.
The site also provides a tool for a detox analysis that looks for defects in the cytochrome P450 detox enzymes.
This site uses the API from 23andMe and this enables users to link their 23andMe account to this service.
Incorrect methylation leads to a wide range of serious medical conditions.
This makes the methylation profile offered by genetic genie a good report.
The detox profile looks at gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the cytochrome P450 detox enzymes, amongst others.
The methylation report is detailed, but the detox report just displays a table without any interpretation.
This is a free service but a voluntary donation starting from $5 is accepted.
Their 23andMe raw data analysis and interpretation reports focus on nutrition and health.
After paying a one-time fee of $20 you get to keep your account for life.
In addition, you also get free app updates.
But do take note that, other subscription charges are applicable on top of the $20 fee for basic access.
You either get your report altogether or a monthly subscription for personalized 23andMe health reports and results in emails.
However, the reports lack some important genetic markers.
These might be added to their service over time.
Livewello generates health reports from raw data issued by laboratories including 23andMe, AncestryDNA.com, Gene By Gene, National Geographic, BioCore, and Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) for raw data analysis and interpretation.
Gives you a 23andMe raw data analysis report of what your polymorphisms are for methylation pathways similar to Genetic Genie.
They recommend working with a physician to interpret your results as all genetic reports should.
Their reports are a little too complex to be of practical use to non-technical folks.
However, it is recommended for those who have a keen interest in the science behind DNA testing.
For those looking for easily understandable results, you may want to explore some of the other options given in this blog which give some ready-to-implement recommendations.
That said, their report is much better suited to those with a medical or scientific background than consumers.
The primary focus of this 23andMe raw data analysis service provider is for educational purposes and not for direct consumer purposes.
Their service, which caters to research scientists, focuses on analyzing DNA data to provide users with information about the health risks associated with specific genetic variants.
The initial intention of developing this software is to allow researchers to analyze full genome files but they have then added a software program for personal use and a free genome report that is accessible directly from their site.
Navigating through their many software products on their site it is not immediately noticeable as to where one should upload data for their free report or even that this option was available.
Genomelink provides free reports based on your raw data by assessing your traits and health risks.
However, due to its free cost, the number of traits provided in the reports is quite limited (only 25) and does not cover a range of categories.
To unlock more traits, you have to be subscribed to their ‘Unlimited Plan’ for $14/month, which is not considered cost-effective, as mentioned in a few reviews.
After signing up, all your reports will be consolidated and present in your dashboard, which can be accessed only online, as downloadable PDF reports are not available.
A feedback option will be present next to every trait in your dashboard, so you can choose to let them know whether or not the results provided are accurate.
While the interface is pleasing, their reports are not extensive and cover only a little over 100 traits.
This is relatively small, compared to other companies that provide over 300 traits.
Provides some free features which are: A free detoxification and methylation analysis that will help clarify your nutritional needs.
In addition, a ree placebo tendency analysis report.
A full report is $23 along with future updates.
Nutrahacker reports are more for nutrition information, and specifically vitamin supplements.
This website has several reports that you can buy on celiac disease, methylation, and carrier status.
However, they accept raw data only from 23andMe, so if you have raw data from other companies you need to spend $99 extra for a Nutrahacker report.
The Interpretome website does 23andMe raw data analysis and accepts raw data from Lumigenix.
Using Interpretome, you can access the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) database which contains much information about variations in genes.
This enables your specialist to make an informed decision regarding the treatment/management of complex disorders and ascertaining drug response.
You also receive information regarding genealogy.
For instance, the most likely populations that your chromosomes closely match.
They provide DNA nutrition reports and DNA fitness reports or a diet and fitness combination report.
Additionally, the report is available online. Initially, the information does feel a bit overwhelming.
However, the reports do a good job of giving background information relevant to the results.
This is fairly comprehensive, including not only a list of the genes analyzed in the test but also information about each gene and the basis for reaching a conclusion.
If you are a hardcore athlete, you might want to consider this. However, before buying, do check out our comparative blog on top 5 fitness DNA fitness report providers.
One of the newer companies that provide 23andMe raw data analysis and interpretation tools.
They do not provide health reports but offer a variety of personalized wellness reports based on your raw data.
Above all, their report displays a predisposition summary at the beginning for a quick look at all your traits for the module and your probable risk.
There are six report options available: NutriNome, which would provide information relating to nutrition; FitNome, which was about fitness and training; SkinNome for skin-related traits; AllergeNome, for allergies and sensitivities; PersoNome, for personality-based traits; Total Insights that includes all reports for 20% less than if buying them all separately.
Results may be viewed online on both desktop and mobile.
In addition, they can also be downloaded as a PDF file.
Above all, there is an option to connect directly to 23andMe.
Alternatively, you can upload a Family Tree DNA/Ancestry DNA file from your system.
Here are some resources that will give you more information:
Updated on March 13, 2021
Remember the feeling when you first clicked with someone? The instant connection, as if you’ve known them for a long time. It may be with a person you just met or a casual acquaintance. But that was a special feeling, right? What drives this feeling of social bonding? With Feb 14 just around the corner, here's a little information on how oxytocin influences this true connection with your special someone.
Does the name Oxytocin ring a bell somewhere in your brain? Or maybe in your heart? Also called the ‘cuddle chemical’, this hormone is the behind-the-scenes superhero in regulating social behaviors including empathy, optimism, friendliness.
No choice of yours goes uninfluenced by genes. Relationship and dating preferences are no exception. Presenting to you, the OXTR gene, a master regulator of the oxytocin hormone. We call it the master regulator because this gene produces the receptor, on to which the hormone binds and functions. Any changes to the efficiency of the receptor will affect your sensitivity to the hormone.
Nothing is ever perfect, right? No person is. No gene is. There are variations in the OXTR gene that either promote or decrease your feelings of bonding, empathy, optimism, forgiveness, and other traits that influence your relationship big time. One widely studied and important variation is the A to G transition. This means you may have AA, AG, or GG genotype. Now, the GG variant of the OXTR gene is the good guy here, because it makes you more sensitive to oxytocin resulting in increased empathy and friendliness. This translates to a stronger and more stable relationship. The other variant AA imparts resilience to the hormone's effects.
Here’s the good news, ladies! Men with the GG genotype of the OXTR gene are more sensitive to oxytocin than women with the same genotype. They are more forgiving, empathetic and take steps to end a conflict sooner. They remain positive and calm even in the face of disagreements.
Which variant have you got? Check your results for empathy, social bonding, and optimism traits in the personality report. Even if it is AA or AG, there’s nothing to worry about. Don’t believe us after we’ve praised the good GG guy? Hold tight, because we’ve got evidence! Surveys have found that when GG genotype is present in at least one person in a relationship, couples still report a successful and secure relationship. So, it’s not all just in your genes; it’s in your partner’s too! Which variant have they got? Give them the gift of their genes’ story by buying them a report this Feb 14.
We count on you to spread the word about us and share some love this special occasion! Get 5% cashback for every medium you share this post on. Send a screenshot to firstname.lastname@example.org when you share, and we'll give you the cashback right away!
Upload your DNA raw data to Xcode Life to receive 700+ health-related traits.
Xcode Life analyzes data ranging from a few genes to whole genomes to generate health-related reports spanning across various categories, including nutrition, fitness, skin, allergy, etc.
They accept data from a variety of platforms, including Illumina, Affymetrix, Sequenom, and many others.
You can use your DNA raw data from service providers like 23andme, AncestryDNA, MyHeritage, FTDNA, LivingDNA among several other companies to sign-up with Xcode Life.
You can visit this link for a complete list of the service providers accepted by this company.
Xcode Life offers 11 health-related reports that cover over 700 categories.
Covers over 10 categories, including traits like Pet Allergy, Gluten Sensitivity, Pollen Allergy, etc.
Covers over 20 categories, including traits like Acne, Freckles, Tanning Ability, Stretch Marks, etc.
Covers over 50 categories, including traits like Alzheimer’s, Type 2 Diabetes, Hypertension, Heart Diseases, Depression, etc.
Covers over 33 categories, including traits like vitamin deficiencies, Tendency to Lose Weight on Protein Intake, Lactose Intolerance, Alcohol Metabolism, etc.
Covers over 15 categories, including traits like Aerobic Capacity, Flexibility, Weight Loss/Weight Gain with Exercises, Exercise Recovery, etc.
Covers over 25 categories including, traits like Sleep Duration, Leadership Potential, Creativity, Warrior Personality, etc.
Analyzes more than 15 genes, including MTHFR, MTRR, MTHFD1, CLCN6, NOX4, etc.
Covers over 275 categories, including traits like Ehlers-danlos Syndrome, Familial Colorectal Cancer, Meckel Syndrome, etc.
Covers over 250 categories and analyzes SNPs across several genes, including CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, etc.
Covers over 50 categories, including traits like Breast Cancer Risk in Men, Hormone Receptor and Breast Cancer, Breast Size and Breast Cancer, etc.
Covers the list of gene variants recommended for reporting by the American College of Medical Genetics.
The Xcode Life’s Reports are priced at $20 and $40 (BRCA, PGx, and Carrier Status Reports). They also offer the following money-saving bundles:
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Upload your DNA raw data to Xcode Life to receive 700+ health-related traits.
One of the important questions plaguing most women during their middle age is whether they should opt for menopausal hormone therapy to alleviate menopausal symptoms.
Many women in this delicate phase count fretfully the number of sleepless nights, the night sweats and hot flashes that interrupt their otherwise normal life.
The U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention analyzed a 2015 National Health Interview survey (NHIS) and found that over 56% of perimenopausal women failed to get sufficient sleep.
The dwindling levels of estrogen has been associated with the classic symptoms of menopause, which led people to believe that menopausal hormone therapy could lower the intensity of symptoms.
This made estrogen supplementation very popular during the late 1960s with the belief that it could make women ‘young forever’.
FDA approval for estrogen therapy for osteoporosis helped gain confidence of more women, with observational studies conducted in 1990s showing reductions in coronary heart disease and Alzheimer’s.
The first study that raised an alarm about the use of menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer risk was the Women’s Health Initiative study. This study found that for every 10,000 person-years of use of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use, there were 8 more invasive breast cancers.
Estrogen is a female hormone which is mostly produced in the ovaries. During breast development, the DNA present in the cells is constantly copied before the development of new breast cells.
This delicate process could increase the risk of development of genetic abnormalities.
Estrogen plays an important role in breast tissue development and supplementation with this hormone during menopause, therefore, has been shown to be associated with an increased risk for breast cancer.
The results of the Women’s Health initiative study led to a considerable drop in the use of hormone therapy in the U.S.
The assumption was that women would use it for a short period of time with the risk of breast cancer being uniform.
However, a large study conducted by the Breast Cancer Association Consortium on perimenopausal women showed that specific genetic variants modified the effect of hormone therapy use on the risk of breast cancer.
The study included a large sample size and three loci present on the chromosomes 13, 14 and 16 were found to alter breast cancer risk on menopausal hormone therapy use.
Women who had more than 5 or 6 high risk variants were found to have an 86% increased risk for breast cancer on MHT use while there was no association with breast cancer risk on MHT use among women with fewer than 2 risk variants.
The results of the study should stress the importance of identifying genetic variants and weighing the relief of symptoms against the unhealthy legacy of taking these medications.
You can now find out if you carry the variants associated with Menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer risk from Xcode’s Breast Cancer report by uploading your 23andMe or any other Ancestry DNA raw data.
You can read more about the Xcode Breast Cancer report here.
When 23andMe receives your saliva sample, it extracts cells (mostly cheek cells) from your saliva, then breaks down the cell and nucleus to get your DNA. Your DNA is then purified and multiplied several folds to make it easily detectable.
23andMe uses a “genotyping chip” to detect your DNA data. What part of your DNA is detected depends on which chip was used. 23andme has used different chips over the years. Think of it in terms of smart phones. Each year, new versions of chips are released with more and more functionality than the previous version. Similarly, the DNA chips are constantly upgraded and the latest “chip” is typically better than the previous version in terms of how much information it detects from your DNA.
In 2017, 23andMe migrated from the Illumina OmniExpress chip that was used across multiple ancestry DNA companies. The current 23andme v5 chip, the Global Screening Array (GSA) is a next-generation genotyping array for population-scale genetics, variant screening, pharmacogenomics studies, and precision medicine research. This version of the chip has around 650,000 SNPs suitable for both ancestry and health testing.
Keep in mind that 23andme includes a list of their own unique features to the standard GSA chip.
According to Illumina, the GSA covers a multi-ethnic, genome wide markers with curated clinical research variants and markers that serve as quality control for precision medicine research. The content has been selected for high imputation accuracy specifically to the minor allele frequencies above 1%. All the 26 1000 Genomes Project populations have been considered. The balance between the health and ancestry markers is evident in that, variants with established associations with diseases, pharmacogenomic relevance have been included. The content is curated based on ClinVar, National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), PharmGKB, Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAc Database). In-built quality control markers enable sample identification for applications in large scale genomics and screening, which is very useful for companies with a huge customer demand like 23andMe.
The Illumina Omniexpress chip, is the current chip version for other popular companies like Ancestry DNA and Family Tree DNA. However given the demand for third party re-analysis from companies like Xcode Life, and GSA’s compatibility with these tools, all other ancestry companies are likely to migrate to this version. While the OmniExpress chip was satisfactory for the European populations, it could not be applied to the other populations. The GSA is more inclusive of other world populations.
Because there are so few overlapping markers between the GSA and the OmniExpress this change will also present problems for companies and third-party websites that accept autosomal DNA transfers. A choice will need to be made as to whether to do comparisons using only the overlapping markers or whether to experiment with imputation. Xcode’s platform caters to all major genotyping platforms across the ancestry DNA testing companies.
Those of you who purchased the 23andMe kit after August 2017, will have reports based on Illumina’s latest v5 chip. Given that this chip is the most conducive with health-related traits, let’s take a look at a list of all traits that you can do from the raw data file:
|CHIP||NAME||NO. OF SNPs||Applications|
|v4||HTS iSelect HD||611,000|
|v5*||Global Screening Array (GSA)||~650,000|
|v1||OmniExpress Genotyping BeadChip||701,400|
|v2*||OmniExpress Plus Genotyping BeadChip||669,000|
|Family Tree DNA|
|-||OmniExpress microarray chip||696,800**|
|-||Global Screening Array (GSA)||~650,000|
|-||OmniExpress microarray chip||696,800**|
**Only for autosomal and the X chromosome
A haplogroup is a global extension of your family. Depending on the sequence of genetic markers that they carry in their cells people can be grouped into specific ancestry DNA haplogroups. A group of individuals belonging to the same haplogroup can trace their roots back to a common ancestor. This usually also points to a specific geographical point since each haplogroup has a definite migratory pattern. If you want to know more about the science behind these ancestry DNA haplogroups, you can refer here
Besides their common geography and migratory pattern haplogroups are characterized by a de novo mutation. These mutations are carried and undergo vertical transmission through subsequent generations. When sufficient number of people carry this single base change in their DNA sequence they will together form a haplogroup. Needless to say that it takes thousands for sufficient individuals to carry the mutation (now called polymorphism) and form a haplogroup.
Haplogroups are not permanent. They have in the past phased-out and formed new ones. Though some of them have successfully sustained themselves to the present day. Nearly 50% of all Europeans have the haplogroup H. This means that they have all descended from a single person who had lived thousands of years back.
The head of the maternal or paternal haplogroup within whom the set of gene variation first occurred.
New haplogroups are formed when a gene mutation occurs in someone from a particular ancestral clan. However, it is not before many generations that enough people carry the mutation for it to spread, become prevalent to be considered as a haplogroup. Any haplogroups that start forming today will not be recognized as new ones for centuries, or even millennia. The haplogroups that form today will eventually be able to be traced back to the earliest known person to carry the mutation, just as today’s known haplogroups can be traced back to the earliest known person to carry it in the distant past.
Everyone inherits the DNA within a cell organelle called the mitochondria from the mother only. Hence maternal haplogroups are defined using variants in an individual’s mitochondrial DNA. Another interesting fact about the mitochondrial DNA is that it does not undergo the process of recombination with other types of DNA (like your nuclear DNA). This means it is inherited as it is with limited changes directly from you mother. Therefore individuals with the same maternal line will share the same maternal haplogroup. Each maternal haplogroup traces back to a single mutation at a specific location and time.
Y chromosome is found exclusively in males (with the exception of individuals with Klinefelter’s syndrome). The Y chromosome undergoes genetic recombination with the X chromosome at a specific region called the pseudoautosomal region. In other words, this region of the Y chromosome behaves like an autosome in spite of being a sex chromosome. However this a very small fraction. Around 95% of the Y chromosome remains unchanged across generations. This is used to trace your paternal ancestry. Though females do not have a Y chromosome, they would share the same paternal haplogroup with another male member of the direct line (e.g father, brother).