Vitamin E is a group of 8 different nutrient compounds: 4 types of tocopherols and four types of tocotrienols. Both tocopherols and tocotrienols are types of vitamin E nutrients.
Image: Forms of Vitamin E
The most predominant form of vitamin E in the body is α-tocopherol. It comprises over 90% of the vitamin E found in the body. This form was first isolated from wheat germ oil. Interestingly, the “tokos” in α-tocopherol stands for “childbirth.”
Animal studies have revealed that a deficiency of α-tocopherol increases the risk of infertility. That’s why this nutrient is also known as anti-infertility vitamin or anti-sterility factor X.
Vitamin E is an essential nutrient, which means we need to obtain this nutrient through food sources.
Some foods rich in vitamin E are almonds, sunflower seeds, avocados, peanut butter, pine nuts, rainbow trout, and pumpkin.
Vitamin E is a potent antioxidant and protects our body from the damaging effects of free radicals.
Free radicals are unstable molecules that are harmful to the healthy cells in our bodies.
Vitamin E also has anti-aging properties.
Once vitamin E enters the body, it is absorbed by the intestines and stored in the adipose tissues, commonly known as body fat. On-demand, the adipose tissues are broken down to release vitamin E.
Here, it is important to know that the liver only acts on α-tocopherol and converts it into a form that is usable by the cells in the body. All other types of vitamin E are excreted out.
A healthy adult woman requires about 8 mg of vitamin E per day. In men and pregnant women, the requirement increases to 10 mg per day.
Vitamin E deficiency can result in a weakened immune system, muscle damage, vision loss, and nervous system-related disorders.
Many conditions like cystic fibrosis, short bowel syndrome, and chronic pancreatitis prevent effective absorption of fats, including the fat-soluble vitamin E. So, they can increase your risk for vitamin E deficiency.
Genetics is another important factor that contributes to vitamin E deficiency.
The TTPA gene is crucial for regulating vitamin E levels in the body. It contains instructions for the production of α-tocopherol transfer protein. This protein is responsible for the distribution of vitamin E obtained from the diet to all the cells and tissues of the body.
Any changes in this gene can affect the amount of the protein produced, and hence the vitamin E levels. People who have these changes are at a higher risk of vitamin E deficiency.
A simple genetic test can reveal your genetic status of vitamin E deficiency.
Most genetic tests provide your DNA information in the form of a text file called the raw DNA data. This data may seem like Greek and Latin to you.
At Xcode Life, can help you interpret this data. Upload your raw data and order a nutrition report.
Xcode Life then analyzes your raw data in detail to provide you with comprehensive nutrition analysis, including information on your vitamin E requirements.
Also Check Out: Gene Nutrition Report Walkthrough!
Folate (Vitamin B9) is also known as folic acid or folate. "Folic" is derived from the word "folium," meaning leaves, as in green leafy vegetables. Needless to say, leaves are one of the richest sources of vitamin B9.
The vitamin B9 we eat is absorbed in the jejunum region of the small intestine after going through minor structural changes.
In most cases, dietary sources of vitamin B9 are sufficient to meet this nutrient's requirement. Other than the leafy greens, some foods rich in vitamin B9 are beans, whole grains, seafood, peanuts, and sunflower seeds.
The Recommended Dietary Allowance or RDA for folate is 400 mcg/day for healthy adults. The RDA for lactating and pregnant women are 500 and 600 mcg/day, respectively.
Folate deficiency in pregnant women is one of the leading causes of neural tube defects, a birth abnormality, in babies.
Symptoms of vitamin B9 deficiency include extreme tiredness, pale skin, headaches, and heart palpitations.
Vitamin B9 needs to be converted into a form called tetrahydrofolate or THF to be effectively used by the body. The conversion of folic acid to THF is carried out by an enzyme called THF reductase.
This conversion is a very crucial step in the MTHFR cycle.
THF plays a very important role in converting a harmful amino acid called homocysteine to a safe and useful amino acid called methionine.
Image: Folate Cycle
The MTHFR gene is a well-known gene associated with folate deficiency. This gene helps the conversion of inactive vitamin B9 such as folate, or folic acid, to active B9, the THF.
30-60% of people have a change in this gene that ultimately leads to low vitamin B9 levels in the body.
Other genes like MTYL1 also influence your vitamin B9 levels.
Fortunately, vitamin B9 deficiency comes with a simple fix - increasing your dietary folate intake. In some cases, folate supplements may be advised.
A simple genetic test can reveal your genetic status of vitamin B9 deficiency.
Most genetic tests provide your DNA information in the form of a text file called the raw DNA data. This data may seem like Greek and Latin to you.
At Xcode Life, can help you interpret this data. Upload your raw data and order a nutrition report. Xcode Life then analyzes your raw data in detail to provide you with comprehensive nutrition analysis, including information on your vitamin B9 requirements.
Vitamin A is important for the overall development and maintenance of the body. Our body does not produce vitamin A on its own. It needs to be supplemented through diet; that's why it's called an essential vitamin.
The retina is the film screen, located at the very back of the eye. It contains two important cells that process the light entering our eyes.
The rod cells help us see in low light, while the cone cells help our color vision. The rod cells contain an important protein called rhodopsin, which moderates low light vision. A form of vitamin A called the retinal helps activate rhodopsin.
This is why a severe deficiency of vitamin A can cause night blindness.
Vitamin A is also crucial for maintaining skin integrity and forming new skin cells. Since vitamin A is an excellent antioxidant, including it in your diet every day can lower your risk for heart attack.
We all know that carrots are a good source of vitamin A. They are a rich source of a molecule called beta-carotene. Beta-carotene is a provitamin A. Provitamins are substances that are converted into active vitamins in the body.
Beta-carotene is what is responsible for the bright orange color of the carrot. All plants provide vitamin A in the form of beta-carotene, among other forms.
Vitamin A is present as retinol, a form of active vitamin A, in animal food sources. Now, the beta-carotene from plant sources must be converted to active vitamin A for it to be useful to the body.
Let’s see how that happens.
The structure of beta carotene resembles that of a dumbbell - two ring-like structures joined by a chain. This chain is cut in a particular way to give rise to two molecules of retinol, or active vitamin A. This cleavage happens in the liver.
Image: Cleavage of beta-carotene to retinol
Vitamin A in the body can be converted or interconverted into different formats. The retinol and retinal forms are interchangeable, while there’s only a one-way conversion from retinal to retinoic acid.
Image: Different forms of active vitamin A
The retinal form of vitamin A is absorbed by the intestinal villi along with fats. From there, it is transported to and stored in the liver. Whenever there's a requirement for vitamin A, retinal is released by the liver. It then binds to the specific retinol-binding protein, which serves as a carrier to transport it to various locations of the body.
The cleavage or the cutting of beta-carotene to form retinol is carried out by an enzyme called Beta Carotene Oxygenase or Monooxygenase. This enzyme is produced by the gene called BCMO1 or BCO1.
Every person has two copies of the BCMO1 gene. But, about 45 percent of the population carries at least one change or variation in the gene that reduces the enzyme activity. This results in a significantly impaired ability to convert beta-carotene into retinal.
Depending on which combination of variants someone has, beta-carotene conversion can be nearly 70 percent lower than its normal efficiency.
Vitamin A deficiency has serious health implications.
Knowing your BCMO1 gene status can help you gauge your genetic risk for vitamin A deficiency. This can be done through a genetic test.
Most genetic tests provide your DNA information in the form of a text file called the raw DNA data. This data may seem like Greek and Latin to you.
At Xcode Life, can help you interpret this data. All you have to do is upload your raw data and order a nutrition report. Xcode Life then analyzes your raw data in detail to provide you with comprehensive nutrition analysis, including information on your vitamin A requirements.
Choline was declared an essential nutrient by the Institute of Medicine in 1998. Essential nutrients are compounds that the body cannot produce or produces in insufficient amounts and need to be supplemented through diet.
Choline is required for several important functions in the body, including the regulation of the muscular system, nervous system, and liver function. It also helps maintain an active metabolism.
Choline is a part of a type of fat called phospholipids, which are essential to protect the structural integrity of the cell membranes. It produces compounds that aid the transportation of lipids, thereby preventing their accumulation in the liver.
Choline is also needed to produce acetylcholine, which is a neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitters help transmit signals from the brain to the target cells.
Small amounts of choline are produced in the liver, but this is not enough to meet daily requirements. This essential nutrient needs to be supplemented through diet. The requirements vary from person to person based on their age, genetic makeup, and various other factors.
The Institute of Medicine recommends a daily intake of 550 milligrams and 425 milligrams of choline for adult men and women, respectively.
Pregnant and breastfeeding women are recommended to increase their daily intake to 450 milligrams and 550 milligrams, respectively.
Choline deficiency is rare, but certain individuals are at a higher risk. According to a 2018 study, men are at a higher risk for choline deficiency than women!
However, post-menopausal women are at a higher risk, followed by pregnant women. Higher choline intake can help prevent birth anomalies like neural tube defects.
Other at-risk groups for choline deficiency include:
A choline-rich diet is very effective for preventing choline deficiency. Eggs, organ meat such as chicken liver, salmon, and cod are good sources of choline.
Plant-based sources include vegetables like broccoli, and cauliflower, fruits like apples and tangerines, and certain vegetable-based oils like soybean oil. Soy lecithin is a food additive that contains about 3-4% of choline content.
Image: Dietary sources of choline
*DV - Daily Value
Source: National Institutes of Health
Certain genes also influence your choline requirements.
The PEMT gene is one such example. This gene contains instructions for making an enzyme that is involved in the production of choline.
Variants or changes in this gene affect the levels of choline in the body.
In case you are at risk for choline deficiency, talk to your doctor. You might need to take choline supplements apart from eating a diet rich in choline.
A genetic test can help find out if you have any genetic variations that affect your choline levels.
Most genetic tests provide your DNA information in the form of a text file known as the raw DNA data. This data may seem like Greek and Latin to you.
We, at Xcode Life, can help you interpret this data. All you have to do is upload your raw data and order a nutrition report. Xcode Life then analyzes your raw data in detail to provide you with comprehensive nutrition analysis, including information on your choline levels.
Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body! In fact, all our cells contain magnesium!
Most of it is stored in the bones, muscles, and soft tissues. It plays an important role in numerous body functions.
Magnesium is a cofactor. Cofactors are not proteins; they attach to a protein, mostly an enzyme, to help activate it. Magnesium is involved in more than 300 enzymatic reactions in the body.
It also plays a crucial role in metabolism by breaking down the food you eat to provide your body with energy. Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is the main source of energy in the body. For ATP to be active, it must bind to magnesium.
Magnesium, along with calcium, plays an important role in muscle contraction and relaxation. During exercise, magnesium maintains a balance of electrolytes, both within and outside the muscle cells, thereby preventing muscle cramps.
This process doesn’t just benefit your skeletal muscles, but your heart muscles too! It regulates the rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the heart muscles, thereby keeping a check on your blood pressure.
Magnesium also helps form new bone cells in order to maintain bone strength.
Studies show that about 68% of the US population does not meet their daily magnesium requirements.
The recommended daily intake is 400 milligrams for adult males and 310 milligrams for adult females.
This varies with age and other factors like pregnancy or underlying health conditions.
Magnesium deficiency or hypomagnesemia can lead to muscle weakness, cramping, numbness, irregular heartbeat, loss of appetite, and several other symptoms.
In certain cases, people may also have very high levels of magnesium, and this is termed hypermagnesemia.
The mineral content of these foods depends on the nutritional content of the crop and soil.
Sometimes, you might need magnesium supplements to meet your daily recommended intake.
The magnesium levels in your body are partly influenced by your genes. CASR is one such gene, which contains instructions for producing a protein called the Calcium Sensing Receptor.
The CASR protein mainly regulates calcium levels but also influences the reabsorption of magnesium in the kidneys.
Certain types of this gene can increase your risk of magnesium deficiency by reducing the reabsorption of magnesium.
Through a genetic test, you can find out if you have any genetic variations that affect your magnesium levels.
Xcode Life, can help you interpret this data. All you have to do is upload your raw data and order a nutrition report. Xcode Life then analyzes your raw data in detail to provide you with comprehensive nutrition analysis, including information on your magnesium levels.
Vitamins are organic substances needed for the growth and development of the human body. Ascorbic acid or Vitamin C is one such vitamin.
It was discovered in the 1920s by Albert von Szent Györgyi as the molecule that can cure scurvy. Scurvy, which is caused by severe Vitamin C deficiency, can turn fatal if left untreated.
Vitamin C is now an established drug and is commonly used as a supplement. Vitamin C must be consumed through food or diet. It can be excreted out of the body easily because of its water solubility.
Some animals like cats and dogs can synthesize this vitamin on their own, whereas some birds, fish, and humans cannot.
Though humans have the gene needed for vitamin C production, it has been inactivated through evolution.
The gene crucial for converting L-Gulonolactone into ascorbic acid, the active form of vitamin C, is heavily mutated. This gene contains instructions for producing an enzyme called gluconolactone oxidase or Gulon. These mutations were accumulated over time as humans evolved. These genes that accumulate mutations and are not functional are termed pseudogenes.
You must be wondering why a process so crucial is prevented from happening in our bodies. The answer to this lies in understanding the function of this gene.
There are a few theories to answer this question.
The first one is that hydrogen peroxide is a byproduct of this process.
Hydrogen peroxide is a reactive oxygen species, ROS for short. A buildup of ROS in the body can lead to disease conditions. By not synthesizing vitamin C, our body prevents the buildup of ROS.
Another theory talks about the function of vitamin C as a regulator.
Vitamin C regulates the transcription factor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α, HIF1α for short. This is responsible for regulating the production of several stress-related genes.
This shows that there are actually some advantages to the absence of vitamin C synthesis in the body. Additionally, human ancestors have had plenty of vitamin C in the fruits and berries they consumed in the rain forests.
Your genes can also influence how effectively vitamin C is absorbed and used by the body. SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 genes are involved in the absorption and distribution of vitamin C. Mutations or changes in these genes also influence the absorption of vitamin C by the body.
You can find out if you have any genetic variations that affect your vitamin C levels. This can be done through a genetic test.
Xcode Life, can help you interpret this data. All you have to do is upload your raw data and order a nutrition report.
Xcode Life then analyzes your raw data in detail to provide you with comprehensive nutrition analysis, including information on your vitamin C levels.
Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is one of the crucial nutrients for DNA synthesis and red blood cell formation. It is a water-soluble vitamin and is easily absorbed into and metabolized by the body. Vitamin B12 is crucial for preventing megaloblastic anemia, a blood condition that makes people tired and weak.
The vitamin B12 requirements vary according to age and health conditions. An average healthy adult's Recommended Dietary Allowances or RDA of vitamin B12 is 2.4 micrograms. This requirement increases to 2.4 and 2.8 micrograms for pregnant and lactating women, respectively.
As you age, the absorption of several nutrients, including vitamin B12, is reduced. The RDA for elderly individuals varies from 25 to 100 micrograms.
It is quite easy to obtain this vitamin from dietary sources like fish, meat, egg, and dairy products. If you do not consume meat or dairy, you can still get your vitamin B12 from fortified food sources, like plant-based milk, cereals, and grains.
But natural food sources provide more vitamin B12 than fortified ones. People on vegetarian and vegan diets are at an increased risk for vitamin B12 deficiency.
Some notable symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include pale skin, fatigue, mouth ulcers, mood changes, and confusion. It can also lead to megaloblastic anemia, characterized by the circulation of abnormally large red blood cells.
A common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anemia, in which your immune system mistakenly attacks cells that are required to absorb vitamin B12.
Other causes of vitamin B12 deficiency may include certain medications like proton pump inhibitors and gastrointestinal disorders like Crohn's disease.
Genetics is another factor that can influence vitamin B12 levels. Based on your genes, you may be inclined to either have increased or decreased levels of vitamin B12.
The TCN2 gene contains information to produce the transcobalamin 2 protein, which is involved in the transportation of vitamin B12 from blood to the cells in the body. Certain changes in this gene can affect your vitamin B12 levels in the body.
FUT2 is yet another important gene that influences the absorption of vitamin B12 in the body. FUT2 contains information to produce an enzyme that is necessary for the attachment of a harmful bacteria called Helicobacter pylori to the digestive tract. This bacteria impairs the absorption of vitamin B12 from food.
You can find out if you have any genetic variations that affect your vitamin B12 levels. This can be done through a genetic test.
We, at Xcode Life, can help you interpret this data. All you have to do is upload your raw data and order a nutrition report. Xcode Life then analyzes your raw data in detail to provide you with comprehensive nutrition analysis, including information on your vitamin B12 levels.
Vitamin D plays a major role in maintaining bone health. It helps the body effectively utilize calcium from the diet.
Some food sources of vitamin D include egg yolk, dairy, fatty fish, and grains. Exposure to sunlight is a major source of vitamin D. The UV rays in sunlight induce vitamin D production in the skin. About 15 minutes of exposure to sunlight is recommended to maintain optimal vitamin D levels.
In today's world, people may not have enough exposure to sunlight.
Sunscreens are commonly used to prevent sunburns and tans, thereby blocking UV rays and the production of vitamin D. A sunscreen of SPF 30 can reduce the amount of vitamin D produced on sunlight exposure by more than 90%.
The worldwide prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is very high, as high as 50%. Vitamin D deficiency leads to bone loss, pain, risk of fractures, and several disease conditions, like rickets and lupus.
Certain groups of people are at an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. These include:
Very few foods have enough vitamin D to reach recommended daily intakes, and sunshine can be unreliable in certain climates.
In these cases, vitamin D supplements can be taken in addition to food sources.
Make sure to talk to your doctor before taking vitamin D supplements.
Overdose can lead to vitamin D toxicity, which is dangerous.
Vitamin D production depends on several factors, including the color of your skin, duration of exposure, amount of skin exposed, and genetics.
People with darker skin have more melanin, the pigment responsible for skin color. This protects skin cells from harmful radiation damage.
Melanin also blocks the amount of UVB radiation that enters the skin, thereby reducing the amount of vitamin D produced. So people with darker skin tones are at a higher risk for vitamin D deficiency.
Studies have found some genetic changes associated with vitamin D deficiency.
Two such genes are GC and VDR.
Let's see how they regulate vitamin D levels.
This is especially seen in organs like the kidneys, bones, intestines, parathyroid glands, and the cardiovascular system.
Mutations or changes in the VDR gene affect vitamin D levels and can increase or decrease the sensitivity of the body to the effects of vitamin D.
You can easily find out if you have any genetic variations that affect your vitamin D levels through a genetic test.
Most genetic tests provide your DNA information in the form of a text file, called the raw DNA data.
This data may seem like Greek and Latin to you. Xcode Life, can help you interpret it.
All you have to do is upload your raw data and order a nutrition report. Xcode Life then analyzes your raw data in detail to provide you with comprehensive nutrition analysis, including information on your vitamin D levels.
Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body that plays an important role in over 300 enzymatic reactions.
Magnesium is a macromineral - this means our body requires large quantities of magnesium.
About 60% of the magnesium in your body is found in bone, while the rest is in muscles, soft tissues, and fluids, including blood.
The benefits magnesium offers to the body is not limited to one organ. It plays several important roles in the health of your body and brain.
Despite its importance, according to a study, 68% of Americans don’t meet the recommended intake of magnesium.
Magnesium deficiency is associated with a range of health complications, so it is essential to meet your magnesium requirements.
About 60% of the magnesium is present in bone, 20% in skeletal muscle, 19% in other soft tissues, and less than 1% in the extracellular fluid (fluid outside the cells in the body). Magnesium is present in very low levels inside the cells except for situations like hypoxia (lack of oxygen) or extended periods of magnesium depletion.
When magnesium enters the body via dietary sources, about 30-40% of it is absorbed in the intestines. The factors that interfere with the absorption of magnesium haven’t been well-researched yet. According to a study, the parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D play a role in intestinal absorption.
Regulation of serum magnesium concentration is achieved mainly by control of renal magnesium reabsorption. 95% of the magnesium is reabsorbed in the kidney. The transport and reabsorption in the kidney are influenced by sodium chloride levels.
Magnesium reabsorption is increased in the kidney by parathyroid hormone and inhibited by hypercalcemia (high levels of calcium).
There are also certain genetic factors that influence the transport of magnesium into the kidney.
Scientists have been studying the effect of magnesium on health. This is what we know so far:
Magnesium is a cofactor (cofactors are chemical compounds that are required to activate enzymes) for more than 300 enzymes.
These enzymes are required for various chemical reactions that are involved in:
Magnesium is essential to communicate the signals from the brain to the rest of the body cells. The magnesium present in the receptor cells prevents unwarranted excitation of the brain cells, thereby preventing brain damage. Lowering of brain activity is also necessary to sleep.
Some studies suggest that magnesium consumption helps lower blood pressure. However, this effect was noticed only among people with high blood pressure (hypertensive). No effect was found on those with normal blood pressure levels.
Since magnesium coordinates brain signals, it also keeps your mental health in check. Studies suggest a link between lower magnesium levels and depression.
Some studies also suggest that supplementing with magnesium can help alleviate symptoms of depression.
Magnesium is required to move blood sugar into cells, which gives the energy-boost during exercise. It is also required to remove the lactate from muscles, which causes fatigue.
A study suggests that magnesium needs rise by 10-20% when exercising than at rest.
A study suggests that people with migraines are more likely to be magnesium deficient than others.
Some studies even encourage magnesium supplements to prevent and treat headaches.
The contraction and relaxation of cardiac muscles are required for the beating of the heart - the muscles here follow a rhythmic contracting pattern. Calcium is required for muscle contraction, and magnesium is required for muscle relaxation. This helps in maintaining a steady heart rhythm.
The hormone insulin is required for the transport of sugar into the cells. Magnesium is required for insulin regulation. Any deficiency in this mineral can, therefore, increase your risk for type 2 diabetes.
The name magnesium comes from Magnesia, a district of Thessaly/Greece where it was first found.
Even before magnesium was discovered as an element, it had already existed in everyone’s daily life.
In 1618, a farmer in England observed that his cows did not drink water from a particular well - he found that water from that well had a bitter taste. However, the same bitter-tasting water seemed to clear up scratches and rashes.
Eventually, the compound that gave the bitter taste was recognized as Epsom salts or magnesium sulfates (MgSO4).
In 1755, a Scottish physician Joseph Black recognized magnesium as a separate element.
However, it was isolated only in the 1800s by a British chemist Sir Humphry Davy. He also suggested the element to be named ‘magnium.’
In 1831, a French chemist Antoine A.B. Bussy discovered a way to isolate magnesium in large quantities. He published his findings in the journal “Mémoire Sur le Radical métallique de la Magnésie.
For adult men (aged 19 years and older), the RDA of magnesium is 400-420 mg. Adult women need lesser magnesium - 310-320 mg. For pregnant women 18 or older, the requirements are increased to 350–360 mg per day.
The daily upper intake level (highest levels of daily intake that doesn’t have any adverse health effects) for magnesium is 350 mg for anyone over eight years old, including pregnant and breastfeeding women.
The TRPM6 gene is located on chromosome 9 and encodes transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 6 (TRPM6). This protein forms a channel that allows the flow of magnesium into the cells - it also allows the flow of small amounts of calcium into the cells.
The TRPM6 protein is primarily present in the large intestine, kidneys, and lungs. When the body requires magnesium, this channel allows the absorption in the intestine - when the body has excess magnesium, it filters out the magnesium ions into the kidneys to be excreted through the urine.
rs11144134 of TRPM6 Gene and Magnesium Deficiency Risk
rs11144134 is an SNP in the TRPM6 gene associated with the regulation of serum magnesium levels. According to a study, the T allele of rs11144134 in TRPM6 is associated with lower serum magnesium levels.
But the T allele was also associated with higher bone mineral density in the femoral neck and lumbar spine.
The CASR gene is located on chromosome 3 and encodes the ‘calcium-sensing receptor’ protein (CaSR). The protein is primarily present in the parathyroid gland, kidneys, and brain. The CASR gene is concerned mainly with maintaining calcium levels, but it also affects magnesium levels in the body. It especially regulates the reabsorption of magnesium in the kidneys.
rs17251221 of CASR Gene and Magnesium Deficiency Risk
rs17251221 is an SNP in the CASR gene associated with the regulation of serum magnesium levels. The presence of the G allele increases the serum magnesium levels.
Other genes like DCDC5, HOXD9, LUZP2, MDS1, MUC1, and SHROOM3 also influence magnesium requirements.
Some early signs of magnesium deficiency are:
Untreated magnesium deficiency can lead to more severe symptoms like:
The symptoms of hypermagnesemia include: