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Reading Ability: An Introduction

Reading ability refers to the skills required to understand written text. This skill is usually developed during early schooling. Reading is not as easy as we might think it to be. Reading is a complex process that requires many skills. People develop their reading ability over a few years. As you develop these skills over time, it helps you achieve the ultimate goal of reading which is reading comprehension or understanding what is written.

Reading ability includes five main skills. These are phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Comprehending or understanding what you’re reading is vital. Without comprehension, reading is usually pointless. Reading comprehension helps students develop relevant knowledge, skills, and experiences to become competent readers and use these skills later on.

What Does Research Say About Reading Ability?

Research on good reading skills shows that good readers are usually selective as they read. They tend to create a mental overview or outline of their reading goals before they start reading and note the structure and organization of the text. While reading, they understand words easily, can understand the flow of the text, and connect two sentences. They are more likely to focus on parts of the text that they feel are aligned with their reading goals. Some people are good at skimming through text also and infer what they need.

Reading can be challenging for some people due to lots of reasons. Some children struggle with reading initially. This can be rectified and improved over time using certain ways.

Importance of Reading Ability

Reading skills are always an asset because reading and understanding are a vital part of our everyday lives.
Reading ability is critical to the development of a child and is needed for better learning and education.
Reading is vital for overall attainment in school and a key to success in school and future life.
Engaging children in reading from an early age helps ensure that children are equipped with the skills necessary to understand the text and improve their reading ability.

Genetics and Reading Ability

People with certain genetic types are more likely to have a better reading ability and may exhibit characteristics such as rapid reading skills, fluency, and better recall of text.

Non-Genetic Factors That Influence Reading Ability

Several factors that influence reading ability include:
1. Vocabulary - Vocabulary skills also matter when you come across new words. Having good vocabulary skills helps you understand the text better, faster and improve comprehension skills.
2. Fluency - The ability to read fluently helps you read the text faster and spend less time understanding the meaning of words and sentences.
3. Active reading - People who read often develop their reading skills and tend to get better at reading, comprehension, and writing. Active reading also involves understanding and critically engaging with the content you’re reading. This saves time and helps you understand better.
4. Education - The quality of teaching also influences the reading ability of an individual. The quality and kind of teaching at the school level can affect a person’s reading ability.


There are several ways by which you can improve your reading skills and get better at reading comprehension. These include
- Start reading actively. Reading often and reading with determination helps you save time, understand the text better and relate the text with your reading goals.
- Set specific reading goals. This will help you improve your reading efficiency and identify what information is important for you. You can set goals based on how much you want to read, or what kind of content you want to read.
- You can improve your reading speed to read more within a given time frame. Concentrate on your reading and time your reading speed. You can also skim whenever needed. The main goal is to increase the number of words you read within a given time frame and single fixture of your eyes on the text.
- During the initial stages of reading, reading aloud helps you learn the language, improve fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension skills.
- Read a variety of content* that aligns with your interests.


  1. Reading ability is the set of skills required to understand written text and is usually developed during early schooling. The set of skills include phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.
  2. Reading and understanding are critical to the development of a child and a vital part of our lives. It is an important part of educational and overall attainment and is needed for a child’s success in school and future life.
  3. Good readers are selective as they read, tend to create a mental overview of their reading goals, and note the structure, flow, and organization of the text.
  4. Active reading, vocabulary, fluency, education, and background knowledge are some of the non-genetic factors that influence reading ability.
  5. Engaging children in reading from an early age can help improve their reading ability. Reading actively, setting specific reading goals, improving reading speed, reading aloud initially, and reading a variety of content can help you get better at reading.


Educational Attainment: An Introduction

Educational attainment is the highest degree of education that a person has completed in a lifetime. Educational attainment depends on many environmental, social, and genetic factors.

The United States Census Bureau collects data and maintains records on the educational attainment of people. This data is derived through questions like “What is the highest degree or level of school completed?”. Separate questions are used to determine any other educational certificates or licenses earned by an individual. Schooling, 12th grade without a diploma, high school diploma, GED or alternative credential, some college credit, associate’s degree, bachelor’s degree, master’s degree, doctorate, or other professional degrees beyond bachelors are levels of education completed by a person. The field of degree is also included in this survey.

Here is a list of education levels and the percentage of people who fall in the bracket as of 2018. The data is from the United States Census Bureau.
High School diploma - 89.80%
College level - 61.28%
Bachelor’s degree - 45.16%
Professional degree (master’s degree) - 13.04%
Doctorate - 2.03%

Importance Of Educational Attainment

Income Levels

Education directly affects the income level of a person. The average income of a male high school dropout is $30,065. The average income of a man with a bachelor’s degree is $67,399, and that of a male with a doctorate is $101,126


When everyone in the world has the same access to education and achieves similar educational attainment, it balances out gaps and gives everyone an equal chance of growing in life. According to David F. Labaree, education gives people credentials that are independent of their social, political, and economic backgrounds.

Health and Standard of Living

Studies suggest that as socio-economic gaps grew among people with high and low educational attainment, health disparities also grew. Right now, scientists are identifying clear patterns between low educational attainment and poor health.

People with less education face early mortality rates and a variety of health complications.

Another article also concluded that Americans with less than 12 years of formal education ended up with lower life expectancy than those who completed school and a bachelor’s degree.

Economic Development

Economic development largely depends on human capital. The higher the educational attainment of citizens, the better will be the growth rate of the country. Countries with consistently high literacy rates develop faster economically.

Genetics And Its Influence On Educational Attainment

While non-genetic influences play a major role in increasing/decreasing educational attainment, studies mention that genetics may cause up to a 20% variation in this trait among individuals.

The TBR1 Gene

The _TBR1 gene (T-box, brain, 1 gene) helps produce a type of transcription protein that is important during embryo development. This protein also controls the movement of neurons and plays a role in brain development.

Changes or mutations in the TBR1 gene have been found in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs).

*rs4500960 *
rs4500960 is a single nucleotide polymorphism or SNP in the TBR1 gene. This SNP is located on chromosome 2. The T allele of this SNP is associated with higher levels of educational attainment when compared to the C allele.

The ZSWIM6 Gene

The ZSWIM6 gene (Zinc Finger SWIM-Type Containing 6 gene) helps produce the ZSWIM6 protein. Abnormal levels of the protein may cause neurodevelopmental disorders and autistic traits.

rs61160187 is an SNP in the ZSWIM6 gene. This SNP is located on chromosome 5. The A allele of this SNP is associated with higher levels of educational attainment when compared to the G allele.

Non-genetic Influences That Affect Educational Attainment

Socio-Economic Status (SES)

Socio-economic status is a measure of a family’s social and economic position. Families are usually placed in three categories - high, middle, and low depending on their income and occupation.

According to a popular 2009 study on child psychology, children who are from low socio-economic statuses have behavioral problems related to learning. The schools situated in areas with low SES also offer sub-par educational standards. All these results in SES affecting a child’s educational attainment.

Parental Involvement

Children from homes where parents are actively involved in the child’s academic performance achieve higher educational attainment. Children with such involved parents end up getting more degrees and do better career-wise too.

Home Environment

A lot of factors involving the home environment play a role in determining the educational development of a child. Here are few important factors that make a difference in a child’s educational attainment:
- How responsive the parents were
- How many books did the family own
- How many learning simulation toys the kids had access to
- Were the children hugged, kissed, and loved?
- Were the children scolded, spanked?
- How often the children got out of the house

Learning Disabilities

Children with and without learning disabilities have different levels of educational attainments. Studies point to the fact that a very small percentage of children with learning disabilities manage to finish high school when compared to children without learning disabilities.

Geographical Location

People in developed countries manage to achieve higher levels of educational attainment when compared to those in developing and underdeveloped countries. The number of individuals who have never enrolled in a school in regions like Central Arica, South Asia, and West Africa is much higher than in regions like South America, Europe, and Central Asia.

Recommendations To Improve Educational Attainment

Healthy Nutrition

A balanced diet is important for an individual’s overall health and well-being. Without proper nutrition, the child may not be healthy and this can lead to reduced cognitive ability, poor short-term memory, and lower I.Q. Early childhood nutrition including breastfeeding is found to have an impact on the cognitive abilities of a child.

Identifying Different Selectivity Levels

A book titled ‘Crossing the Finish Line: Completing College at America’s Public Universities’ talks about how students in public universities find it difficult to complete their education. A particular section of the book mentions identifying different selectivity levels in students. This means, instead of colleges and schools trying to increase their graduation rate, effort must be taken to ensure students choose the kind, of course, they have a better chance of graduating from.

Offering Online Education

Offering education through online courses can increase educational attainment levels. When students are offered flexible studying modes, it brings down the cost of education and improves student enrollment and completion of courses.

Making Education More Affordable

A majority of students drop out of high-school or college courses because of increased expenses and tuition fees. Some of the below strategies can help prevent this.
- Improving state financial aid programs
- Maintaining predictable tuition fees
- Offering full funding for students from low Socio-economic Statuses

Support Programs For Struggling Students

Apart from the inability to afford tuition fees, students drop out of school/college for the below reasons too.
- Bored and not interested in school/college
- No motivation to attend school/college
- Substance abuse habits
- Bad earlier school experience
When there are support programs to handle these issues, they can encourage students to re-enroll themselves back to school or college or complete a course they had given up halfway through.


  1. Educational attainment is the highest degree of education that a person has completed in their lifetime.
  2. Educational attainment affects a person’s income levels, career choices, health, and the country’s economic development.
  3. Changes or variations in the TBR1, ZSWIM6, ITPR3, and LHFPL3 genes all influence a person’s ability to achieve educational attainment.
  4. A person’s Socio-Economic Status (SES), parental involvement, home environment, and geographical location can all make a difference in the highest degree of education a person completes.
  5. Offering flexible education modes, making education more affordable, offering support systems for struggling students, and matching a student’s abilities to the right course can all improve the level of educational attainment.


Verbal Numerical Reasoning: An Introduction

Cognition and intelligence are skills that one is born with but can be developed during the individual’s lifetime. Verbal reasoning is the ability to think in words, i.e., the ability to solve problems based on words and language.

Numerical ability, on the other hand, is the ability to play with numbers. Individuals with good numerical ability can work around quickly with numbers, are good with simple arithmetic problems, and use the various formulae they know to arrive at solutions. These individuals are great in sectors like finance and marketing.

Importance of Verbal Numerical Reasoning

Verbal numerical reasoning is an essential cognitive skill that everyone develops as they grow up. This skill has become increasingly important for day-to-day activities, including finding a job.

Numerical reasoning is a basic skill that exists in children even before they are taught mathematics in school. It helps in a myriad number of ways, including:
- Critical thinking
- Solving basic math and arithmetic problems
- Ability to form estimates
- Analysis of graphs and data
- Increases concentration while solving mathematics problems

Verbal reasoning enables one to reason and understands concepts based on words and language. Having good verbal reasoning allows one to develop perception and empathy, solve complicated problems, and develop a good vocabulary.

Non-genetic Factors that Influence Verbal Numerical Reasoning

Verbal numerical reasoning is characterized under a very broad heading of intelligence. There are many factors, apart from genetics, that can influence an individual’s numeric and verbal reasoning. These are:
- Gender: Boys tend to have a better understanding of mathematical problem solving whereas, girls tend to have higher language and verbal reasoning abilities.
- Family environment at home: Poor parenting can result in lower verbal or numerical reasoning in a child.
- Education: The quality of teaching, the level of education
- Diet: A poorly nutritious diet can affect brain development and function in a child and subsequently reduce their verbal and quantitative reasoning abilities.
- Lack of emotional support

Characteristics of People with High Verbal Numerical Reasoning

Individuals who have high verbal numerical reasoning show some characteristics such as:
- A love for reading and writing
- Sharing thoughts on what they’ve read
- Good editing skills
- Good retention capacity
- Multilingual

Recommendations for improving Verbal Numerical Reasoning

Not everyone is blessed with genes that make them adept at verbal and numerical reasoning. However, there are ways to improve your numerical and verbal reasoning abilities:
- Engage yourself in word games or numerical problems
- Try spelling tests or numerical problem tests
- Try writing stories and putting your thoughts into words
- Improve your general knowledge by reading books, newspapers, playing science games
- Try logic games and pattern identifying tests
- Get back to school books and try your hand at some basic numerical and verbal reasoning problems


  1. Your verbal numerical reasoning (VNR) score indicates your efficiency in handling words, languages, and numbers. It is an essential cognitive skill that develops when growing up.
  2. VNR has become increasingly important for day-to-day activities, from effective communication to landing a job.
  3. Genetic research has identified certain genetic regions that jointly influence cognitive skills like VNR and schizophrenia. Genetic changes associated with lower VNR also may be associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia.
  4. Gender, family environment, and access to good education could all influence the VNR skill of an individual.
  5. Constantly keeping your mind occupied with verbal and numerical problems can help you improve your VNR skills. Logic games and pattern identifying tests can also stimulate your cognitive capabilities.

The Relationship Between Breastfeeding and Intelligent Quotient

Breastfeeding is feeding a woman's (mother's) breastmilk to a baby for its nourishment. For the first six months of a baby's life, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding to help the child receive essential nourishment.

Most women start lactating as soon as they give birth. They can breastfeed the child for as long as they want to or according to the baby's needs.

A few facts about breastmilk:
- Breastmilk is a perfect combination of fat, sugar, proteins, and water.
- Breastmilk also contains growth factors, neuropeptides, and hormones that are needed for the growth and development of the baby.
- The composition of breastmilk keeps changing depending on what the baby needs.
- Breastmilk triggers a positive immune response in the body to help the baby fight infections better.

According to the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), only 58.3% of babies are breastfed at six months, and only 35.3% of infants are breastfed at the one-year mark in the United States.

What Is Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

IQ is the score that measures human intelligence. There are standardized tests that can measure IQ levels. In general terms, people with higher IQ are considered more intelligent with the ability to achieve more personally and professionally.

Importance of Breastfeeding for IQ Levels

A 2008 study tried to analyze the effects of extended breastfeeding on a child's cognitive ability. A total of 17046 babies were selected, and 13889 children participated in the follow-up study after 6.5 years.

[Exclusively breastfed children scored better in the IQ tests and also had higher academic ratings when compared to children who were not exclusively breastfed] (

Another 2015 study assessed the effects of breastfeeding on long-term IQ levels, income bracket, and educational qualifications for 30-year-old adults. A total of 5914 babies were selected for the study, and 3493 of these babies came back as 30-year-old adults for the follow-up.

The study concluded that babies who were exclusively breastfed for at least 12 months had higher IQ scores, had more years of education, and had significantly higher income levels.

Income, IQ levels, and Breastfeeding

In Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs), the number of children who are exclusively breastfed for the first six months is lower than the average WHO standards. This could be causing lowered IQ standards in these regions.

Obesity, IQ levels, and Breastfeeding

A 2014 meta-study analyzed the results of 25 individual studies that related obesity and breastfeeding. It concluded that breastfeeding was associated with a lesser risk of obesity in children.

Now, there are also studies that relate childhood obesity with an increased risk for low intellectual ability. Breastfeeding can also increase IQ levels indirectly by bringing down the risk of obesity.

Physical Health, IQ levels, and Breastfeeding

Breastfeeding positively affects the below health factors.
- Breastfeeding reduces the risk of asthma, allergies, and respiratory illnesses.
- Breastmilk strengthens the immune response.
- Breastfeeding is associated with reduced risk of diabetes and certain kinds of cancers as the child grows up.

Breastfeeding, in general, keeps the child healthy. Healthy children are more active, and physical health is directly associated with increased IQ levels.

The Evolution Of The Importance Of Breastfeeding

You might assume that breastfeeding was the obvious and natural choice for infants before the introduction of formula feeds. That wasn't the case, though.

Breastmilk substitutes were common and largely chosen as early as 3500 BC. There is evidence of breast-shaped pots in clay that were used as an alternative to breastfeeding for babies. These pots were filled with cow and goat milk.

It was very common for ancient Greek, Roman, and Egyptian royalty to hire wet nurses (women who are paid to breastfeed another woman's child) to breastfeed the royal children. By the 16th century, this process was so common that books on 'how to hire a wet nurse' were published and sold in large numbers.

It was said that wet nurses who were highly paid hired cheaper wet nurses to feed their babies and used their milk to feed other children.

As the importance of breastfeeding started being researched, things took a U-turn. Governments started encouraging women to breastfeed their own children. In Germany, during the late 1700s, the government made it compulsory for healthy mothers to breastfeed their own children.

In the 20th century, formula milk was introduced as an easier alternative to breastmilk and became very popular. By around the 1970s, only 22% of women in the United States breastfed their babies, and the rest used formula milk. This lasted for a couple of decades.

Studies that pointed to breastmilk increasing a child's cognitive and IQ skills changed people's mindsets.

Right now, breastfeeding and its importance are widely researched and studied. Women take conscious and better decisions. The benefits of breastfeeding for the development of cognitive abilities are encouraging a lot of healthy and willing mothers to consider breastfeeding their children for as long as they can.

How Does Genetics Affect IQ Levels Upon Breastfeeding?

Genetics can play a role in determining how effective breastfeeding is to develop high IQ levels.

The FADS2 Gene

The FADS2 gene (Fatty acid desaturase 2 gene) helps in converting fatty acids in the body to Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA). Both these are vital for cell growth and the overall growth and development of human beings.

This conversion is also important for normal cognitive function in children and adults.

rs174575 is a single nucleotide polymorphism or SNP in the FADS2 gene. A study revealed that people with the C allele in this SNP had a 6.4 IQ point advantage when compared to non-breastfed children with the C allele. Children with the G allele did not show such an advantage with breastfeeding.

*rs1535 * is another SNP in the FADS2 gene. The same study identified that people with the AA and AG genotypes of the SNP rs1535 of this same gene showed higher IQ levels when breastfed. This advantage was not present in people with GG genotype.

Recommendations To Handle Breastfeeding To Improve IQ levels

Make breastfeeding an easy process
Learning the right breastfeeding postures, understanding the basics of the process, and taking help from a lactating consultant if needed can all help make breastfeeding an easy journey, and this will positively affect the child's IQ levels.

Mothers can consider pumping breastmilk and freezing excess milk to ensure they are able to provide breastmilk to the infant for as long as they want to.

Consider mixed feeding if you are unable to exclusively breastfeed
Some women completely give up breastfeeding if they find their milk production inadequate or if the child gets hungry often. Such mothers can consider a mix of both breastmilk and formula milk for their babies to ensure the baby is full and the required goodness from breastmilk is still provided to the child.

Breastfeeding as a personal choice
Breastfeeding is a personal choice of the mother, who should not be forced to take it up because of its relation to positive IQ levels. If the mother is unable to breastfeed because of health issues or does not want to breastfeed, then there are brain exercises and different learning practices that can also help improve Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in babies.


  1. Breastfeeding is the process of nursing a baby with breastmilk to keep the child nourished and healthy.
  2. Women start lactating as soon as they give birth, and breastmilk contains the right nutrients needed for the mental and physical growth of a baby.
  3. One of the most discussed benefits of breastmilk is higher IQ levels in babies initially and as they grow up. There are many studies that agree with this idea and conclude children who were fed breastmilk do better in IQ levels as they grow up.
  4. Genetically, certain alleles of specific SNPs of the FADS2 gene can cause a significant increase in IQ levels in breastfed babies.
  5. Certain non-genetic factors like income, obesity and physical health can all influence the duration of breastfeeding, frequency of breastfeeding and hence play a role in increasing/decreasing the effect of breastmilk on IQ levels.
  6. Educating women about the best ways to breastfeed and making the process easy will encourage women to breastfeed more. Opting for mixed feeding (breastfeeding + formula feeding) also helps.
  7. It is important to note that breastfeeding is a personal choice for women, and women should not be forced to make the choice because of its relation to IQ levels.


What is Maths Ability?

Maths or mathematical ability can be defined as the mental ability needed to acquire knowledge or skill in mathematics, which includes measurement, properties, and relationships of quantities and sets, using numbers and symbols.

To put it simply, it is the ability to perform mathematical tasks and to effectively solve given mathematical problems.

Research shows that the parietal cortex, the top/middle region of the brain, plays a central role in our ability to process numerical information or numerical cognition. The right parietal region is involved in basic quantity processing. The left parietal region is involved in precise number processing and numerical operations such as addition and subtraction.

A study published in the Cerebral Cortex journal reported that the left and right hemispheres work together to improve math performance. The strength of communication between the two hemispheres of the brain predicts performance in basic arithmetic problems. Study participants who had the strongest connection between the left and right hemispheres of the brain were found to be better at subtraction.

A widely accepted and most acknowledged theory was put forth by Krutetskii in 1976. He suggested that maths ability includes the following:
- Using formal language and operating within formal structures of connections
- Thinking in a logic-sequential manner
- Performing shortcuts while solving problems
- Using more than one approach
- Recalling previous concepts and generalizations.

A person’s ability to do maths is a balance of nature and nurture. Both genetic and environmental factors can decide your relationship with maths. Maths ability is considered to be a complex trait that involves neurological and cognitive development as well as education and training. Some people have a bad relationship with math early on. Math problems may give them anxiety, and they lack the confidence to attempt complicated math problems. Others may love math and try complicated problems as a fun challenge.

Genetics and Maths Ability

Maths ability is known to be heritable. Several genes that play a role in brain development influence the ability to do maths also. A study published in the PLOS Biology journal identified genetic variations and brain regions that affect maths ability. The study suggests that genes that influence the early development of the brain’s basic quantity processing system might affect maths ability.

The SPOCK1 Gene

The SPOCK1 gene carries instructions for the production of a protein called Testican-1. This gene is involved in tumor progression and prognosis as well as neurogenesis, which is the process by which new neurons are formed in the brain. This gene is found to play a role in neurodevelopment, and hence changes in this gene are found to affect maths ability.

rs1012694 is a single nucleotide polymorphism or SNP in the SPOCK1 gene. People with the minor allele, the T allele are found to have lower mathematical ability.

rs11743006 is an SNP in the SPOCK1 gene. People with the minor allele, the A allele, are found to have lower mathematical ability.

Non-Genetic Factors That Influence Maths Ability

Early education can affect how you learn maths and your liking for it. Teaching methods, teacher’s behavior, quality of teaching, motivation, the concentration of students, are found to influence maths ability.

Dyscalculia is a maths learning disability. Scientists are not sure of the exact cause for this disability. People with this condition find it difficult to learn number-related concepts, perform accurate maths calculations, reason and solve problems, and perform other basic maths skills.

Other conditions
People with dyslexia, ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) find it harder to learn maths and solve maths problems.

A person’s motor skills also affect their maths learning ability. Fine motor skills are essential for the early development of mathematical skills.

People with Alzheimer’s also find it difficult to perform simple mathematical calculations as their condition worsens.

Autism and Mathematical Skills
Children with autism are found to have better mathematical skills compared with nonautistic children with the same IQ range. These children were found to have unique patterns of brain activation while solving maths.

Recommendations To Improve Your Math Ability

Even though genetics partly influences maths skills, you can follow certain methods to improve your ability to solve problems and understand maths better.
- The proverb “Practice makes a man perfect” holds for maths ability also. Practice is very important to get better at maths. By practicing, you can get used to solving problems, and you may even increase the speed at which you solve.
- Focus on understanding concepts. Just learning and memorizing the formula won’t help when you are given a new problem with variations in the concept. Learning the concept can help you understand what you’re doing and improve your maths skills.
- Try to think of real-world situations in which you can use the concepts you’re learning. This will help you understand and remember it better.
- Don’t lose hope. Basic maths is not very hard. There are various resources available online and offline to help you get better at maths.
- There are certain strategies and learning methods for people with dyscalculia to improve their mathematical skills. These include repeated practice, segmented subject material, and different learning methods to understand basic concepts.


  1. Mathematical or maths ability is the ability to perform mathematical tasks and to effectively solve given mathematical problems.
  2. The parietal cortex, the top/middle region of the brain, plays a central role in our ability to process numerical information or numerical cognition.
  3. Maths ability is a combination of thinking in a logic-sequential manner, performing shortcuts while solving problems, using different ways, and recalling previous concepts and generalizations.
  4. Several genes that play a role in brain development influence mathematical ability as well. SPOCK1 is an example. It influences new neuron formation in the brain. This gene is found to play a role in an individuals’ maths ability.
  5. Education, teaching methods, quality of teaching, student’s attitudes are some factors that affect math ability.
  6. Conditions like dyslexia, ADHD, and Alzheimer’s affect a person’s ability to do maths.
  7. Dyscalculia is a maths learning disability. People with this condition find it difficult to learn number-related concepts, perform accurate maths calculations, reason and solve problems, and perform other basic maths skills.
  8. Practice, understanding concepts relating to real-world situations can help you learn maths better and improve your skills. There are special strategies to help people with dyscalculia.


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