The Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) gene is associated with the synthesis of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE), a key enzyme necessary to convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II, which regulates blood pressure. A 287 bp Alu repeat element in this gene has been shown to be associated with the level of ACE. The absence or deletion of this repeat is associated with higher levels of enzyme, which increases the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II.
During physical exercise, people with the deletion are associated with higher blood pressure as higher levels of the enzyme cause higher levels of angiotensin II. This is associated with a lower maximal heart rate and lower maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max).
When this repeat element is deleted, it will not be detected on a particular genotyping array, so a proxy SNP in Linkage Disequilibrium with the candidate gene is utilised. The rs4343 proxy SNP is utilised in our panel as it has a significant association with the insertion/deletion of the ACE gene. People with the G variant are associated with deletion of the repeat.
A study conducted on elite runners showed that those with the G variant (rs4343) of ACE gene were associated with faster sprinting time compared to people with the A variant. In another study, people with the A variant were found to be associated with better endurance.
In terms of hypertension/ salt sensitivity, the ACE enzyme plays a key role in the regulation of blood pressure based on salt intake. People with the A variant of the gene were shown to be associated with elevated blood pressure on increased intake of salt.
With respect to carbohydrate sensitivity, a study conducted on obese individuals, a high daily carbohydrate intake was found twas shown to be associated with higher likelihood of obesity among people with GG genotype than among people with the AA genotype. People with the GG genotype tolerate carbohydrates less well when compared to those with the AA genotype.
How can this information be used?
It is important to choose an appropriate diet based on the genetic profile
For people with G variant
For people with A variant
“Nutrigenetics, fitness genetics, health genetics are all nascent but rapidly growing areas within human genetics. The information provided herein is based on preliminary scientific studies and it is to be read and understood in that context.”