The hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) is associated with the synthesis of hepatic lipase enzyme (LIPC) which catalyzes the hydrolysis of fat. Hepatic lipase converts intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) to low-density lipoprotein (LDL).It is expressed in the liver and in the adrenal glands. Specific alleles of this gene are known to either increase or decrease hepatic lipase levels, and due to linkage disequilibrium, the levels of lipoprotein lipase, which is associated with variations in the plasma HDL levels. People with the T variant of the gene are shown to be associated with higher baseline HDL levels.
People with the C variant of the gene were associated with reduction in weight, body fat and visceral fat.
In a study investigating the effects of endurance training on plasma lipoprotein levels, people with the C variant of the gene have been found to be associated with exercise mediated reduction in VLDL and increase in HDL. The benefit of exercise was found to be more in men with CC genotype than women.
In a meta-analysis study conducted on children, boys with the T allele had a higher BMI and higher risk of obesity. In another study, boys with the T variant of the gene were found to be associated with higher HDL level on high fat intake.
In a study conducted to determine gene-nutrient interactions, people with the T variant on a low fat diet (less than 30% of energy from fat) have been shown to be associated with higher HDL levels. In a study conducted to identify how Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians in Singapore were exposed to similar environment but where Asian Indians had three times the rates of myocardial infarction compared to Chinese, found that a complex interplay of environmental and genetic factors gave rise to these ethnic differences. A high fat diet was shown to be associated with higher serum triglyceride and lower HDL-cholesterol concentrations in people with the T variant while those with the C variant were shown to be associated with lower serum triglyceride and higher HDL cholesterol under the same dietary conditions. People with the T variant of the gene may have an impaired adaptation to a high fat diet, increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease.
In a study conducted on the LIPC gene variant and insulin sensitivity, the baseline insulin sensitivity was found to be similar between the gene variants but, upon exercising, people with the C variant were shown to be associated with higher insulin sensitivity. In a similar study, men with the T variant were shown to be associated with an improvement in insulin sensitivity when MUFA and carbohydrate rich are consumed instead of SFA fat. There was no association with women with the T variant and between diet and insulin sensitivity among men and women with the C variant.
[Limitation] More likely to have lower baseline HDL
[Advantage] More likely to have higher HDL level upon exercising
[Advantage] More likely to have higher HDL on high fat diet
[Advantage] More Likely to have improvement in insulin sensitivity upon exercising
[Limitation] Less Likely to have improvement in insulin sensitivity when on MUFA and Carbohydrate rich diet
Slightly improved insulin sensitivity upon exercising
[Advantage] More likely to have higher baseline HDL
[Limitation] Less likely to have higher HDL level upon exercising
[Limitation] More likely to have Lower HDL on high fat diet
[Limitation] Less Likely to have improvement in insulin sensitivity upon exercising
[Advantage] More Likely to have improvement in insulin sensitivity when on MUFA and Carbohydrate rich diet
“Nutrigenetics, fitness genetics, health genetics are all nascent but rapidly growing areas within human genetics. The information provided herein is based on preliminary scientific studies and it is to be read and understood in that context.”