The Insulin signaling protein type 2 gene (INSIG2) is associated with the synthesis of INSIG2 protein which interacts with transcription factors, activating the synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids. The variants of the INSIG2 gene have been shown to be associated with body fat accumulation. Specific alleles of this gene are known to either increase or decrease INSIG2 protein levels which are associated with subcutaneous fat accumulation upon exercising.
In the Framingham Heart Study, people with the C variant of the gene were shown to be associated with obesity, measured in terms of BMI. In a recent similar study conducted on a North Indian population, there was a significant association between INSIG2 gene polymorphism and severe obesity. In another study that analyzed the level of subcutaneous fat, women with the C variant of the gene were shown to be associated with higher levels of baseline subcutaneous fat.
Men with the C variant of the gene were associated with higher gain in subcutaneous fat upon resistance training while men with the G variant showed a loss in subcutaneous fat. In another study, men with the G variant of the allele were shown to be associated with Intramuscular (IMAT) volume in the upper arm after 12 weeks of training than for the subcutaneous fat. In a study on obese children who were on a weight loss program, children with the C variant of the gene were found to lose less weight than children with the G variant.
In a study conducted on Japanese women, the C variant of the gene was shown to have a protective effect on the progression of hypercholesterolemia when on a high fat diet. On an initial analysis in another study, women with the C variant of the gene showed a lower prevalence for hypercholesterolemia.
[Limitation] More likely to have higher BMI
[Limitation] More likely to have higher subcutaneous fat upon resistance training
[Advantage] Less likely to have hypercholesterolemia (Women)
Moderate BMI and subcutaneous fat accumulation upon exercising
[Advantage] More likely to have lower BMI
[Advantage] More likely to have lower subcutaneous fat upon exercising
[Limitation] More Likely to have hypercholesterolemia(women)
“Nutrigenetics, fitness genetics, health genetics are all nascent but rapidly growing areas within human genetics. The information provided herein is based on preliminary scientific studies and it is to be read and understood in that context.”