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Gene Detox Report

Xcode Life's COVID-19 Gene Report covers more than 10 traits to help you understand your body's response to the COVID-19 virus.

What's in the report? 

Traits covered in this report include: 

Response to Hydroxychloroquine therapy, Response to Dexamethasone therapy, Response to Lopinavir-ritonavir combination therapy, Response to BCG vaccine therapy, Risk of severe COVID-19 symptoms, Vitamin A needs, Vitamin D needs, Vitamin C needs, Zinc needs, Selenium needs, and Tendency for growth of Bifidobacterium Sp
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gene detox report

CYP1A1

The CYP1A1 gene contains instructions for the production of Cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1. It belongs to the CYP group of enzymes, which converts toxins to activate intermediates that can be potentially harmful. Cytochrome P450 enzyme is one of the main liver enzymes that can metabolize both exogenous and endogenous compounds into their carcinogenic derivatives. The gene is also involved in the oxidative metabolism of estrogens, which may play a critical role in the etiology of breast and prostate cancer.

CYP1A2

The CYP1A2 gene contains instructions for the production of Cytochrome P450 family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 2. It belongs to the CYP group of enzymes, which converts toxins to activate intermediates that can be potentially harmful. Cytochrome P450 enzyme is one of the main liver enzymes that can metabolize both exogenous and endogenous compounds into their carcinogenic derivatives. Alterations in CYP1A2 expression can affect the risk for several cancers, myocardial infarction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other medical conditions.

CYP1B1

The CYP1B1 gene contains instructions for the production of Cytochrome P450 family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1. This enzyme is produced in many tissues in the body, including the eyes. CYP1B1 is important for metabolizing cancer-causing agents (procarcinogens) like 17 beta-estradiol (an estrogen hormone) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (found in tobacco smoke). It appears that the CYP1B1 gene may play an important role in the development and progression of tumors and has the potential to be a tumor biomarker and a target for anticancer drugs.

CYP2A6

The CYP2A6 gene contains instructions for the production of Cytochrome P450 family 2, subfamily A, polypeptide 6. CYP2A6 is the primary enzyme responsible for the oxidation of nicotine and cotinine (from tobacco smoke). Cigarette smoking behavior is influenced by the type of CYP2A6 gene you carry. The CYP2A6 gene is considered to determine the efficacy of smoking cessation treatments. CYP2A6 represents approximately 4% of the total CYP450 enzymes. CYP2A6 also metabolizes coumarin, a chemical naturally present in foods like cinnamon, celery, strawberries, and apricots.

CYP2B6

The CYP2B6 gene contains instructions for the production of Cytochrome P450 family 2, subfamily B, polypeptide 6. CYP2B6 enzyme makes up approximately 2-10% of total CYP enzymes. CYP2B6 is also expressed in the brain and influences neurological side-effects of drug treatments. CYP2B6 is highly inducible by several drugs and other xenobiotics. In the list of top 200 prescription drugs sold in the United States, about 4% of them are metabolized by the CYP2B6 enzyme. The CYP2B6 enzyme also carries out 10% of nicotine metabolism.

CYP2C9

The CYP2C9 gene contains instructions for the production of Cytochrome P450 family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 9. CYP2C9 metabolizes up to 15%-20% of all drugs undergoing phase I metabolism. The CYP2C9 enzyme plays a significant role in the metabolism of warfarin, a blood-thinning drug (anticoagulant) used to prevent clotting inside the blood vessels. FDA has cleared CYP2C9 and VKORC1 gene testing for warfarin sensitivity and response. The CYP2C9 enzyme breaks down other drugs like ibuprofen. It also metabolizes several steroid hormones and fatty acids.

CYP2C19

The CYP2C19 gene contains instructions for the production of Cytochrome P450 family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 19. CYP2C19 enzyme accounts for 20% of all CYP enzymes found in the body. It metabolizes up to 10% of all clinically used drugs. The CYP2C19 enzyme plays a significant role in the metabolism of clopidogrel, an antiplatelet drug. Antidepressants like amitriptyline, citalopram, and doxepin are also broken down by the CYP2C19 enzyme. Reduced activity of the CYP2C19 enzyme is associated with heart disease, and higher activity is associated with depression.

CYP2D6

The CYP2D6 gene contains instructions for the production of Cytochrome P450 family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 6. It metabolizes around 25% of currently prescribed drugs, including various antidepressants, neuroleptics, beta-blockers, opioids, antiemetics, and antiarrhythmics. Other than the liver, the CYP2D6 enzyme is also present in places in the body, like the central nervous system. About 7-10% of the white population lack CYP2D6 enzyme. The CYP2D6 gene is known to exist in over 90 different versions - each of which impacts enzyme activity.

CYP3A4

The CYP3A4 gene contains instructions for the production of Cytochrome P450 family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 4. CYP3A4 is the most abundant enzyme in the liver and in the small intestine and thus is a major contributor to first-pass and systemic metabolism. Recently, CYP3A4 has also been identified in the brain. It contributes to the metabolism of ~50% of drugs used therapeutically. It also breaks down other endogenous substrates, such as retinoic acid, bile acids, and steroid hormones. CYP3A4 also happens to be absent in the fetal liver!

CYP2C8

The CYP2C8 gene contains instructions for the production of Cytochrome P450 family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 8. CYP2C8 is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism of variation therapeutic agents and endogenous compounds such as retinoic acid and arachidonic acid. Changes in the CYP2C8 gene may change the function of the enzyme, resulting in altered levels of its endogenous substrate and foreign substrate drugs during systemic exposure in humans.

CYP2E1

The CYP2E1 gene contains instructions for the production of Cytochrome P450 family 2, subfamily E, polypeptide 1. CYP2E1 enzyme makes up less than 1% of the total CYP450 enzymes. It helps in clearing 2% of the total prescription drugs in the market. CYP2E1 is mostly concentrated in the liver. It is also found in the lungs, brain, and kidney. Differences in the CYP2E1 gene may influence the risk of alcoholic liver diseases, nonalcoholic liver steatosis, drug-induced liver injury (DILI), and hepatic carcinogenesis..

CYP2J2

The CYP2J2 gene contains instructions for the production of Cytochrome P450 family 2, subfamily J, polypeptide 2. The CYP2J2 enzyme is predominantly present in the heart and, to a lesser extent, in other tissues such as the liver, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, lung, and central nervous system. CYP2J2 metabolizes both exogenous and endogenous substrates. It breaks down a variety of structurally diverse compounds, including some polyunsaturated fatty acids, antihistamines, anticancer agents, and immunosuppressants. The CYP2J2 gene has been found to be over-expressed in a number of cancers.

CYP3A5

The CYP3A5 gene contains instructions for the production of Cytochrome P450 family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 5. The CYP3A subfamily is the most abundant CYP gene found in the liver and the intestines. The CYP3A enzyme metabolizes nearly 37% of 200 of the most commonly prescribed drugs. The enzyme metabolizes various drugs and steroid hormones like testosterone, progesterone, and androstenedione.

ADH1B

The ADH1B gene contains instructions for the production of alcohol dehydrogenase 1B enzyme. This gene is located on chromosome 4 at position 4q22. Previously, ADH1B was called ADH2. ADH1B is involved in the metabolism of ethanol, retinol, and other types of alcohol. Higher levels of ADH1B protein activity in the body lead to an increased risk of acetaldehyde toxicity.

ADH1C

The ADH1C gene contains instructions for the production of alcohol dehydrogenase 1C enzyme. It was previously called ADH3. The ADH1C enzyme plays an important role in detoxification and breaking down ethanol. Lower levels of ADH1C enzyme can lead to alcohol toxicity, and higher levels can lead to aldehyde toxicity. Certain types of the ADH1C gene have been studied in association with laryngeal cancer.

ALDH2

The ALDH2 gene contains instructions for the production of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 enzyme. This gene is located on chromosome 12. The ALDH2 enzyme converts acetaldehyde to acetic acid, which is not harmful to the body. 8% of the world's population is deficient in this enzyme, and these people cannot convert acetaldehyde to acetic acid. 50% of East Asians have a slightly different form of the ALDH2 gene that produces less ALDH2 enzyme - they tend to experience alcohol flush reaction, commonly called the Asian glow (red face).

PON1

The PON gene family comprises three genes– PON1, PON2, and PON3. The PON1 gene contains instructions for the production of paraoxonase 1, a calcium-dependent enzyme. The PON1 gene is located on chromosome 7. The PON1 enzyme is involved in the metabolism of pesticides, especially organophosphates. Certain changes in this gene can increase the risk for organophosphates toxicity.

MAOA

The MAOA gene contains instructions for the production of monoamine oxidase A enzyme. This gene is located near the X chromosome. The MAOA enzyme breaks down molecules called monoamines (neurotransmitters) through a chemical reaction known as oxidation. It is involved in the metabolism of serotonin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. This enzyme also supports fetal brain development. MAOA deficiency, though rare, almost always occurs in males. Low levels of MAOA have been associated with behavioral disorders, including autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

MAOB

The MAOB gene contains instructions for the production of monoamine oxidase B enzyme. This gene is located near the X chromosome. The MAOB enzyme breaks down molecules called monoamines (neurotransmitters) through a chemical reaction known as oxidation. This enzyme is mainly involved in the metabolism of dopamine. Lower levels of MAOB enzymes are also associated with a higher risk for Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. In contrast, higher levels of MAOB have been suspected as an underlying factor in depression.

SOD2

The SOD2 gene contains instructions for the production of superoxide dismutase 2 enzyme. It is located on chromosome 6. The SOD2 enzyme is also called manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase or Mn-SOD. This enzyme helps protect the body from oxidative stress caused due to free radical production in phase 1 detoxification. It is also the main enzyme involved in the conversion of the toxic superoxide to hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. Changes in the SOD2 gene have been associated with heart disease, premature aging, sporadic motor neuron disease, and cancer.

CAT

The CAT gene contains instructions for the production subunits (pieces) of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. Four subunits, each attached to heme (an iron-containing molecule), form the catalase enzyme. The catalase enzyme aids the conversion of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. It also prevents DNA damage caused by free radicals. Catalase enzyme deficiency leads to a condition called acatalasemia. People with acatalasemia cannot break down hydrogen peroxide. People with acatalasemia are at higher risk of developing diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis.

GPX1

The GPX1 gene contains instructions for the production of glutathione peroxidase 1 enzyme. This gene is located on chromosome 3. The GPX1 enzyme is produced in almost all tissues in the body and is one of the most important antioxidant enzymes in humans. It is responsible for catalyzing the conversion of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. Certain forms of the GPX1 gene are associated with breast cancer risk. Proper functioning of the GPX1 enzyme is crucial to prevent type 2 diabetes.

NQO1

The NQO1 gene contains instructions for the production of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1 enzyme. This enzyme helps in oxidizing quinones without the formation of harmful reactive oxygen species. It is involved in the detoxification of carcinogenic quinones derived from tobacco smoke, diet, and estrogen metabolism. NQO1 also helps activate vitamin K to another form called vitamin K hydroquinone. It has a high affinity for the K3 form. NQO1 is also important for the functioning of several antitumor agents.

COMT

The COMT gene contains instructions for the production of catechol-O-methyltransferase enzyme. COMT enzyme is important in an area at the front of the brain called the prefrontal cortex. This enzyme is responsible for degrading a type of neurotransmitter called catecholamines. Catecholamines, also called fight or flight hormones, include dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. The COMT gene has two popular versions - named warrior and worrier variants. Warriors produce higher levels of the enzyme, and worriers produce lower levels of the enzyme. The COMT enzyme plays an important role in DNA methylation.

MTHFR

The MTHFR gene contains instructions for the production of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase enzyme. The MTHFR enzyme adds chemical (methyl) groups to folic acid (Vitamin B9) for the body to utilize it efficiently. This process is also necessary for converting the harmful amino acid homocysteine to another amino acid, methionine, that is safe and useful for the body. About 40% of the American population carry a type of this gene which has been associated with up to 80% reduction in the enzyme's efficiency.

TPMT

The TPMT gene contains instructions for the production of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) enzyme. This enzyme is responsible for adding methyl groups to a class of compounds called thiopurines. So, the TPMT enzyme is predominantly involved in the metabolization of thiopurine drugs. They are used to treat cancer and immune system disorders. Once the drug enters the body, it becomes toxic and kills the immune system cells. The TPMT enzyme is necessary for converting these toxic drugs to their non-toxic forms. 11 percent of the world population have moderately reduced levels of TPMT activity, increasing their risk for bone marrow damage.

MTR

The MTR gene contains instructions for the production of methionine synthase enzyme. This enzyme plays an important role in the processing of amino acids (building blocks of protein). It converts a harmful amino acid called homocysteine to another amino acid, methionine, that is safe and useful for the body. This reaction is also required for the body to activate vitamin B9 to a "more usable" form. Methionine synthase requires methylcobalamin (a form of vitamin B12) for proper functioning.

MTRR

The MTRR gene contains instructions for the production of methionine synthase reductase enzyme. The MTRR enzyme is also called the MSR enzyme. It supports the activity of another enzyme called methionine synthase. Methionine synthase gets deactivated after a period of being active; the MTRR enzyme reactivates it so that methionine production continues. Research studies have identified about 20 mutations in this gene that reduce the level of the MTRR enzyme produced. Lower levels of the MTRR enzyme have been associated with a condition called homocystinuria, characterized by the build-up of homocysteine.

BHMT

The BHMT gene contains instructions for the production of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase enzyme. This enzyme acts as a methyl donor (transfers a methyl group) in the conversion of the harmful amino acid, homocysteine, to a safer one, methionine, that is also useful for the body. The BHMT enzyme is expressed most predominantly in the liver and kidney. Betaine, a compound required for BHMT functioning, can be derived from choline. Changes in the BHMT genes have been implicated in many health conditions like autism, schizophrenia, and spina bifida.

PEMT

The PEMT gene contains instructions for the production of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase enzyme. PEMT is mainly expressed in the liver. This enzyme is crucial for maintaining the levels of choline inside the body. It helps in the conversion of a compound called phosphatidylethanolamine to a form of choline called phosphatidylcholine by adding a methyl group. Choline acts as a backup to folate metabolism by recycling homocysteine with the help of BHMT. Low PEMT levels have been associated with organ dysfunction in postmenopausal women when fed a low choline diet.

CBS

The CBS gene contains instructions for the production of cystathionine beta-synthase enzyme. This enzyme converts the harmful amino acid homocysteine to another compound, cystathionine, using vitamin B6. Another enzyme then converts cystathionine to the amino acid cysteine. Cysteine is then used to make proteins or is excreted. Very high levels of CBS enzyme have been implicated in Down Syndrome. Lower levels of CBS enzyme have been associated with a condition called homocystinuria, characterized by the build-up of homocysteine.

UGT1A6

The UGT1A6 gene contains instructions for the production of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 6 enzyme. This enzyme belongs to a class of enzymes called that UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. The UGT1A6 enzyme is an important part of the glucuronidation pathway that transforms small fat-soluble compounds such as steroids, bilirubin, hormones, and drugs, into their water-soluble forms for easy elimination. UGT1A6 is specifically involved in the metabolism of salicylic acid. It also plays a role in the inactivation of popular analgesic drugs, such as aspirin and acetaminophen.

UGT1A1

The UGT1A1 gene contains instructions for the production of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 enzyme. This enzyme belongs to a class of enzymes called that UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. The UGT1A6 enzyme is an important part of the glucuronidation pathway that transforms small fat-soluble compounds such as steroids, bilirubin, hormones, and drugs, into their water-soluble forms for easy elimination. This enzyme converts the toxic form of bilirubin (a yellowish pigment that is made during the normal breakdown of red blood cells) into the non-toxic form for easy elimination from the body.

SULT1A1

The SULT1A1 gene contains instructions for the production of sulfotransferase 1A1 enzyme. The SULT1A1 enzyme is expressed in the outer roots sheath of hair follicles. This enzyme is involved in a reaction called sulfation, which is the addition of sulfate molecules to other compounds for detoxification. It metabolizes different compounds, including many hormones, neurotransmitters, drugs, and xenobiotic compounds. Certain SULTs also play a role in converting major procarcinogens (cancer-causing agents) into their active form.

GSTM1

The GSTM1 gene contains instructions for the production of glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 enzyme. It helps carry out glutathione conjugation, which is a process that makes toxins water-soluble for easy elimination. 60% of toxins excreted in the bile go through glutathione conjugation process. GSTM1 enzyme is primarily expressed in the liver. 53% of whites, 40-60% Asians, and 21% African Americans have a deletion in the GSTM1 gene that results in the lack of the enzyme. People with low/no GSTM1 enzyme are at an increased risk for several types of cancers due to decreased clearance of carcinogens.

GSTM3

The GSTM3 gene contains instructions for the production of glutathione S-transferase M3 enzyme. It helps carry out glutathione conjugation, which is a process that makes toxins water-soluble for easy elimination. 60% of toxins excreted in the bile go through glutathione conjugation process. Lower expression of the GSTM3 enzyme has been associated with a higher risk for pancreatic cancer. This enzyme also functions as a tumor suppressor.

GSTP1

The GSTP1 gene contains instructions for the production of glutathione S-transferase P. GSTP1 is the most widely studied member of the GST family. The GSTP1 enzymes are expressed primarily in the brain and lungs. This enzyme adds glutathione, a substance made from amino acids, to toxins to make them water-soluble. Certain changes in the GSTP1 gene have been linked to prostate cancer. The negative effects of low GSTP1 enzyme can be counteracted with glutathione and antioxidant supplements.

GSTA1

The GSTA1 gene contains instructions for the production of glutathione S-transferase A1 enzyme. The GSTA1 enzyme is the most abundantly expressed enzyme of its group in the liver. It is also expressed in the breast; thus, it influences the efficacy of breast cancer treatment. The GSTA1 enzyme plays an important role in the metabolism of many chemotherapeutic agents. Increased levels of the GSTA1 enzymes have been associated with tissue death in the liver and kidney.

NAT1

The NAT1 gene contains instructions for the production of N-acetyltransferase 1. The NAT1 enzyme is primarily found in the extrahepatic tissues (tissues found outside the liver). This enzyme is essential for folate metabolism. NAT enzymes add an acetyl group to the toxins to convert them into a form that is easily eliminated. NAT1 enzyme participates in the metabolism of numerous primary arylamines (derivative of ammonia), hydrazine drugs (used for treating cancers), and carcinogens.

NAT2

The NAT2 gene contains instructions for the production of N-acetyltransferase 2. The NAT2 enzyme is primarily found in the gut and the liver. This enzyme is essential for folate metabolism. NAT enzymes add an acetyl group to the toxins to convert them into a form that is easily eliminated. NAT2 enzyme participates in the metabolism of numerous primary arylamines (derivative of ammonia), hydrazine drugs (used for treating cancers), and carcinogens.

NRF2

The NRF2 gene contains instructions for the production of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2). NRF2 increases the levels of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 gene) in order to boost the activity of phase II enzymes. NRF2 is expressed with the highest concentrations in the kidney, muscle, lung, heart, liver, and brain. NRF2 also regulates the expression of antioxidants. It is also important for clearing out the free radicals produced in cells.

ABCB1

The ABCB1 gene contains instructions for the production of P-glycoprotein 1, a transporter protein. P-glycoprotein or P-gp is highly expressed in the linings of small intestines and large intestines. It is also present in the liver, pancreas, kidney, and brain. P-gp transports a wide variety of substrates across extra and intracellular membranes. It also acts as a localized drug transport mechanism, actively exporting drugs out of the cell.

ABCC2

The ABCC2 gene contains instructions for the production of multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2). MRP2 is primarily expressed on the outer membrane that surrounds cells in the liver. It is also present in smaller amounts in the kidneys, intestine, and placenta. MRP2 clears certain drugs from organs and tissues, playing a part in drug metabolism. MRP2 also transports a substance called bilirubin (a yellowish pigment that is made during the normal breakdown of red blood cells) out of liver cells and into bile for excretion.

ABCC1

The ABCC1 gene contains instructions for the production of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1. This gene is found on chromosome 16. The MRP1 protein transports glucuronides and sulfate conjugates of steroid hormones and bile salts. Certain changes in the ABCC1 gene have been associated with increased risk for certain types of cancer. One particular change, called G2168A polymorphism, is prevalent in the Chinese population and increases the risk for lung cancer. Such changes also increase the severity of diseases like cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

ABCG2

The ABCG2 gene belongs to a group of genes called the ATP-binding cassette family. It contains instructions for the production of ATP-binding cassette superfamily G member 2. The ABC proteins transport molecules across cell membranes. The ABCG2 protein is also called the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). In the intestine, it helps convert a substance called urate into urine. In the mammary gland (while lactating), it plays a role in excreting vitamins such as riboflavin (B2) and biotin (B7) into milk. The ABCG2 protein also transports some chemotherapy drugs from organs and tissues.

SLC22A1

The SLC22A1 gene contains instructions for the production of solute carrier family 22 member 1 protein. The SLC22A1 gene is located on chromosome 6. It belongs to the solute carrier (SLC) family, which is also known as the organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1). SLC22A1 is predominantly expressed in the liver, and in lower amounts, in the adrenal gland, lung, kidney as well as other tissues. The SLC22A1 enzyme transports a wide variety of endogenous substances, environmental toxins, and therapeutic. Lower levels of the SLC22A1 enzyme have been associated with an increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (lung cancer).

SLCO1B1

The SLCO1B1 gene contains instructions for the production of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1, or OATP1B1 protein. This protein is primarily found in liver cells. It picks up the toxins from the bloodstream and carries them to the liver for clearance from the body. For instance, it carries bilirubin (a yellowish pigment that is made during the normal breakdown of red blood cells) to the liver to be digested in a digestive fluid called bile. Certain drugs like statins (used to treat high cholesterol), heart disease medications, antibiotics, and cancer drugs are also transported by the OATP1B1 protein.

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