Dexamethasone: An Introduction
Dexamethasone is a corticosteroid medication used for rheumatic disease, skin infections, hypersensitivity reactions, eye infections, ulcerative colitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. Dexamethasone is a glucocorticoid. Glucocorticoids act as an anti-inflammatory drug.
The National Health Service in the UK and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the US recommend dexamethasone for patients with COVID-19 who need either mechanical ventilation or supplemental oxygen (without ventilation).
In a clinical trial conducted in the UK, treatment with dexamethasone was shown to reduce mortality rates by a third among COVID-19 patients on ventilators.
Genetics and Dexamethasone Response
The F2RL1 and Dexamethasone Response
The F2RL1 (also known as protease-activated receptor 2) gene contains instructions for the production of a receptor that belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family of proteins. When activated, they stimulate vascular smooth muscle relaxation, dilate blood vessels, increase blood flow, and lower blood pressure. It is also essential for the inflammatory response, as well as innate and adaptive immunity.
rs2243057 and Dexamethasone response
The rs2243057 is a single nucleotide polymorphism or an SNP in the F2RL1 gene. According to a study, dexamethasone-treated patients with A allele carriers were associated with adverse pleiotropic effects, including osteonecrosis and thrombosis as compared to G allele carriers.
- Dexamethasone belongs to a class of drugs known as corticosteroids, used to treat conditions such as arthritis, allergies, immune system disorders, and certain types of cancer.
- Dexamethasone has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects.
- Clinical trials reveal that treatment with dexamethasone reduces mortality rates by a third among COVID-19 patients on ventilators.
- Studies have shown that a person's genetic makeup can influence the response to dexamethasone.
- The F2RL1 gene, also known as protease-activated receptor 2 regulates the inflammatory response, as well as innate and adaptive immunity.
- People with certain variants of this gene are at an increased risk for bone death ad thrombosis when administered this drug.