What Is Adiponectin?
Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted primarily by adipocytes or fat cells. Adipocytes are found in the adipose tissue. Certain other cell types in the muscle and brain can also produce this hormone.
This hormone plays a role in the metabolism of lipids and glucose. Adiponectin also influences the body’s response to insulin and can reduce cholesterol buildup in the arteries and inflammation.
Reference Range for Adiponectin Levels
The reference range for adiponectin levels is based on the Body Mass Index.
1. BMI <25 - Males: 4-26 mcg/mL and females: 5-37 mcg/mL
2. BMI 25-30 - Males: 4-20 mcg/mL and females: 5-28 mcg/mL
3. BMI >30 - Males: 2-20 mcg/mL and females: 4-22 mcg/mL
Genetics and Adiponectin Levels
Research shows that genetic changes can affect adiponectin levels. A few of the genes influencing adiponectin levels are described below.
The ADIPOQ gene carries instructions to produce the protein hormone, adiponectin. Variants or changes in this gene affect adiponectin levels.
rs17366568 is a single-nucleotide polymorphism or SNP found in the ADIPOQ gene.People with the A allele were found to have lower adiponectin levels.
rs6773957 is an SNP in the ADIPOQ gene. People with the G allele were found to have lower levels of adiponectin, and people with the A allele were found to have higher levels of adiponectin.
The PAPD4 gene carries instructions for the production of a protein known as PAP-Associated Domain-Containing Protein 4. This protein is an RNA polymerase.
rs13358260 is an SNP in the PAPD4 gene. The C allele is found to affect serum adiponectin levels.
The KCNK9 gene carries instructions for the production of a protein called TASK3. This protein is a potassium channel and is involved in the transport of potassium ions in and out of cells.
rs2468677 is an SNP in the KCNK9 gene. The G allele is found to affect serum adiponectin levels.
Non-Genetic Factors That Influence Adiponectin Levels
Serum adiponectin levels were found to be higher in females.
People with certain health conditions like obesity, diabetes, or higher risk of cardiovascular diseases are found to have lower levels of adiponectin.
Certain diets containing carbohydrate-rich foods, soy protein, fish oil, and linoleic acid can affect adiponectin levels.
Low Levels of Adiponectin
Hypoadiponectinemia is a clinical term that refers to low levels of adiponectin in the body. Lower levels of adiponectin are found in people with obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.
Lower levels have also been found in people with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease(NAFLD).
Studies show that lower levels of adiponectin are related to visceral fat accumulation.
Visceral fat is a type of fat found in the body. Also known as belly fat, it is stored in the abdominal region and around all the major organs like the liver, kidneys, intestines, pancreas, and heart. Accumulation of visceral fat can increase the risk of developing insulin resistance, diabetes, heart disease, low levels of HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol), high blood pressure, and even some cancers.
High Levels of Adiponectin
Studies show that higher levels of adiponectin have a protective effect and lower the risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
Higher levels of adiponectin also promote the synthesis of good cholesterol, HDL cholesterol in the body.
Further research is being done on using this hormone as a therapeutic target to treat people with obesity and diabetes.
A review published in the international journal of inflammation reported that higher levels of adiponectin are found in cases of heart failure, hypertension, and chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases like SLE, type 1 diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis.
Changing your diet to follow a healthy and balanced diet is a means of managing adiponectin levels.
- Monounsaturated fats such as fish oil, avocados, olive oil, omega-3 can boost adiponectin levels.
- Make sure you include enough sources of dietary fiber in your meal.
- People who regularly consume caffeine are found to have higher adiponectin levels.
- Curcumin, found in turmeric, can boost adiponectin levels.
- Moderate consumption of ethanol-containing beverages is found to increase adiponectin levels depending on the type of beverage and gender.
- Resveratrol, a compound found in grapes, stimulates the production of adiponectin.
- Zinc supplementation can also restore adiponectin levels to normal in patients with type 2 diabetes.
- A study shows that limiting consumption of carbohydrates to dinner time can increase adiponectin levels and lower the risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Include exercising in your daily routine at least three times a week. Moderate exercise can help keep your body healthy and increase adiponectin levels.
Testing for Adiponectin Levels
Adiponectin levels are determined using a blood test. Levels in the blood are measured using a method called ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay). ELISA is a plate-based assay technique in which antibodies are usually used to detect the target molecule, such as proteins.
Your doctor may ask you to test for adiponectin levels as a biomarker for certain metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes.
- Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted primarily by adipocytes or fat cells. It is mainly known for fat-burning. This hormone plays a role in the metabolism of lipids and glucose. It also influences the body’s response to insulin and can reduce cholesterol buildup in the arteries and inflammation.
- Hypoadiponectinemia is a clinical term that refers to low levels of adiponectin in the body. Lower levels of adiponectin are found in people with visceral fat accumulation, obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.
- Higher levels of adiponectin promote the synthesis of good cholesterol and are found to lower the risk of diabetes and heart disease in certain cases.
- Adiponectin levels in the blood are measured by using a method called ELISA.
- Changes in some genes influence adiponectin levels. People with the A allele of SNP rs17366568 found in the ADIPOQ _ gene are found to have lower adiponectin levels. Changes in the _PAPD4 and KCNK9 gene also affect adiponectin levels.
- Gender, certain health conditions, and diet also affect adiponectin levels.
- Dietary changes and regular moderate exercise can help manage adiponectin levels.
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