Research estimates that 18 million Americans have gluten sensitivity. It is characterized by adverse reactions to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. People who are gluten sensitive may experience common symptoms like bloating, diarrhea, fatigue, headaches, etc. upon consumption of gluten. Some genes, especially the HLA family contribute to the risk of developing gluten sensitivity. According to research, People with two copies of specific genes, such as HLA-DQ7 (a form of HLA-DQ3 that's similar to HLA-DQ8), risk very strong reactions to gluten. Upon confirmation of gluten sensitivity, the best way to go forward is opting for a gluten-free diet.
Gluten is a protein that is found in grains like wheat, rye, and barley.
Some people are inherently sensitive to gluten, which makes them gluten intolerant.
Gluten sensitivity is an autoimmune disease, and celiac disease is its most severe form.
About 0.5-13% of people have a non-celiac gluten sensitivity, which is a milder form of the disease.
There are many signs that indicate one might be suffering from gluten intolerance:
Yes. One can develop gluten sensitivity anytime during their lifetime.
Sometimes people test negative for the autoimmune condition but develop it later on in their lives.
One theory that could explain this is probably the change in the composition of the intestinal bacteria in people who are genetically predisposed to gluten sensitivity.
According to statistics, there has been a 5 fold increase in the prevalence of the disease, primarily in the elderly.
The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) system gene is associated with the synthesis of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), which are cell-surface proteins that are associated with the regulation of the immune system.
There are six single nucleotide polymorphisms of this gene complex; HLA DQ, HLA DQ 2.5, HLA DQ 2.2 (3 SNPs), and HLA DQ7 which have been shown to be associated with gluten intolerance.
The HLA DQ genes have been shown to be strong genetic predictors of celiac disease.
In a study conducted to assess the genetic predisposition to gluten intolerance, nearly all the patients with celiac disease had the risk allele in the HLA DQ2 and the HLA DQ8 gene, with the absence of these variants in 100% of people without celiac disease.
In another study conducted to analyze the human leukocyte antigen alleles, people with the G variant of HLA DQ, T variant of HLA DQ 2.5, G variant of HLA DQ 2.2, T variant of HLA DQ 2.2, G variant of HLA DQ 2.2, and A variant of HLA DQ7 were shown to be associated with predicting a reaction to gluten in the diet.
The Gene Nutrition Report analyzes over 15 genetic variants that contribute to the risk of gluten sensitivity.
Let’s explore the 2 outcomes with an example: HLA DQ 2.5
|TT carriers||Increased risk for gluten sensitivity|
|CC carriers||Normal risk for gluten sensitivity|
Here, the T allele contributes to an increased risk for gluten sensitivity; the C allele carriers, on the other hand, are likely to not be sensitive to gluten.
A similar analysis is performed for the other variants and an overall outcome is provided in the report.
Even if you carry the genetic markers associated with gluten sensitivity, it needs to be further confirmed by checking for symptoms.
It is important to consult with your physician and confirm gluten sensitivity before going on a gluten-free diet.
Before going for a gluten-free diet, it is important to know the foods which are high in gluten.
A gluten-free diet may sound simple - just eliminate gluten from your diet, right?
But here’s the truth: gluten is hidden in many foods where you might not expect to see it.
Locating gluten in some foods can be like trying to find a needle in a haystack.
Here’s a list of food items that are naturally gluten-free:
Despite not having any genetic markers associated with gluten sensitivity, in a few cases, other factors like lifestyle and environment can contribute to the development of this condition.
Thus, it is important to consult a physician if you observe any symptoms upon consumption of gluten.
Gluten-free food is increasingly becoming popular among people.
However, it is recommended only for those suffering from celiac disease who have no other option but to avoid the protein-containing grains.
But, if you are not gluten intolerant or sensitive, it is not advisable for you to go on a gluten-free diet.
Most gluten-free products that are available today are also stripped-off of other nutrients and therefore, are not healthy for those who can eat gluten-based foods.
Gluten sensitivity can affect hormones, especially in women over 40 who are tending towards menopause.
The unpredictability of the ovaries along with the hormones estrogen and progesterone wreck havoc in the body.
If one is gluten intolerant, the problems can increase.
This is because if one is sensitive to gluten, there are high chances that they may have an adrenal hormone imbalance.
The adrenal glands pick up on the stress levels.
Unstable sugar levels and inflammation of the digestive tract as a result of gluten intolerance cause the adrenal glands to secrete cortisol.
This leads to an increase in body fat, fatigue, and irritable mood.
Fatigue is one of the most common symptoms of celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity.
In fact, fatigue and tiredness are the symptoms that last longest, even after the individual has shifted to a gluten-free diet.
Fatigue in gluten intolerant individuals occurs due to two main reasons:
The inflammation in the digestive system due to which is unable to absorb nutrients. Gluten-allergy or sensitivity leads to diarrhea, characterized by loose, watery stools. This leads to lots of water and nutrients elimination from the body.
Dehydration is also a major cause of fatigue and tiredness in gluten intolerant people.
There are many studies that have demonstrated the effect of irritable bowels on the mood of an individual.
However, how gluten results in anxiety or depression in gluten-intolerant or gluten-sensitive individuals have not yet conclusively been proven.
Patients suffering from celiac and non-celiac forms of gluten intolerance have reported neurological symptoms such as headaches, brain fog, anxiety, depression, and peripheral neuropathy.
So, there is no doubt about gluten affecting the neurological system.
Gluten can cause other disorders like insomnia, migraines, ADHD, epilepsy, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and in a minute number of cases, gluten ataxia.
You can avoid the condition by moving to a strict gluten-free diet.
Yes. There are many studies that have shown the correlation between gluten intolerance in people and depression, anxiety, and other neurological syndromes.
A study conducted by Christine Zioudrou and her colleagues at the National Institute of Mental Health in 1979 found that the polypeptides contained in gluten can bind to the morphine receptors in the brain.
These receptor sites are responsible for how we feel.
But, due to the inability of available sites for morphine to bind to, it can lead to depression and mood-related disorders.
So, yes, gluten can affect one’s mood.
There is no conclusive evidence available today that links gluten sensitivity or intolerance to insomnia or sleeplessness.
However, a large majority of the people who suffer from gluten-intolerance report lack of sleep and poor sleep quality.
Due to digestive symptoms, neurological symptoms, and generalized fatigue and tiredness, most people suffer from a lack of sleep or related conditions.
There is a high incidence of UTIs reported in children with active untreated celiac diseases.
Though gluten sensitivity has similar symptoms to celiac disease, the two types of responses differ in terms of both longevity and consequences. While both cause a negative reaction to gluten, celiac disease comes with an inflammatory response, which is absent in gluten sensitivity. The negative effects in gluten sensitivity are also short-lived when compared to celiac disease.
Going gluten-free? Pause and read. Gluten-free is the new buzz word. Most of us have anti-gluten friends who are moving mountains to make us join the “Go gluten-free!” movement. While what you eat is your choice, you might want to get some misconceptions cleared before you start allotting a fat budget for gluten-free foods. Also, find out how you can use your 23andMe DNA raw data to find out your gluten sensitivity status!
Is gluten sensitivity (GS) or gluten intolerance real?
This is a big debate and the scientific evidence for gluten sensitivity being a reality is strong.
A section of people are staunch supporters of the whole “gluten myth” and believe the whole gluten sensitivity thing to be a charade.
Yet the fact remains that there are now 0.5-6% of the world population has gluten sensitivity.
Before you make assumptions purely based on others' opinions, it is wise to do a simple home wheat intolerance test.
Family history is another way to find out if you are gluten sensitive.
To begin with, they are both an exaggerated response by your system and involves gluten.
Yet there is a difference in the role that gluten plays.
In CD, gluten is like the manipulative villain who pitches two good soldiers, who are on the same side, against each other.
When gluten comes into your system your immune system releases an alarm that makes the white blood cells attack your intestinal lining.
In GS, however, gluten is the antagonist.
There is an inflammatory response towards gluten and not your intestine.
In both cases, a gluten-free diet vanishes the symptoms.
Simply because humans have started eating wheat only from 10,000 years ago which is just 0.4% of our total time on this planet.
This means humans have been on a gluten-free diet for 99.6% of their time here. This makes gluten new to a process for our system.
For a major chunk of us, our immune system has accepted this in the diet but for about for a few people, gluten is still that manipulative malefactor.
Like I said at the beginning of the article what you eat is completely your choice.
Feel free to go gluten-free!
Nevertheless be discrete in choosing your alternatives.
Not to mention that you are going to suddenly deprive your body of important vitamins and minerals that you have been casually supplying through your regular consumption of wheat.
Switching to processed food labeled “gluten-free” which replace gluten-rich wheat flour with highly refined carbohydrates like potato starch, rice starch, and tapioca starch will wreak havoc on your blood sugar.
Some healthy options would be millets, soy flour, and coconut flour.
Buckwheat flour can be a good substitute for wheat in cookies and cakes.
You can also explore almond flour and sorghum flour.
There is active research going on to produce genetically modified versions of wheat that do not have gluten or specifically, the protein gliadin which is the primary constituent of gluten.
New Scientist reported recently that using a technique known as RNA interference, scientists are able to “remove” 90% of gliadin by silencing its expression.
You can find the study on the Plant Biotechnology Journal.
Gluten sensitivity is not a myth. It is most certainly not a fashion statement.
If wheat consumption makes you uncomfortable then nothing can stop you from investigating for yourself if you carry those genes.
To put all doubts to rest, it is wise to take a non-invasive genetic test and take necessary precautions if need be than to be in the dark about it all your life.
Have you done a genetic test from 23andme or AncestryDNA or FTDNA?
You can find out about your gluten sensitivity status from your raw data.