GA‐binding protein (GABP) transcription factor gene, also known as the Nuclear Respiratory Factor 2 (NRF2) gene is associated with the synthesis of GABPB1, a key transcriptional activator of numerous nuclear genes which produce various mitochondrial enzymes. The variants of the GABPB1 gene that code for the beta1 subunit of NRF2 protein have been shown to be associated with endurance. Specific alleles of this gene are known to either increase or decrease GABPB1 which stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis upon exercising.
|CHIP Version||GABPB1 SNPs|
|23andMe (Use your 23andme raw data to know your GABPB1 Variant)|
|V5 23andme (current chip)||Present|
|AncestryDNA (Use your ancestry DNA raw data to know your GABPB1 Variant)|
|v1 ancestry DNA||Present|
|V2 ancestry DNA (current chip)||Present|
|Family Tree DNA (Use your FTDNA raw data to know your GABPB1 Variant)|
|OmniExpress microarray chip||Present|
A study conducted on track and field athletes showed that people with the A variant of the gene were more common among endurance athletes than non-athletes. In a similar study conducted on elite endurance, elite power and non-athletes, it was found that people with the A variant were found to be more common among elite endurance athletes.
People with the A variant of the gene were associated with better baseline aerobic capacity and an increase in VO2 max upon aerobic training, when compared with people with the C variant of the gene.
|AA||[Advantage] More likely to improve VO2 max on training [Advantage] More likely to have better aerobic capacity [Advantage] Better endurance ability|
|AC||Moderate endurance and moderate aerobic capacity|
|CC||[Limitation]Less likely to improve VO2 max on training [Limitation] More likely to have lower aerobic capacity [Limitation] Lower endurance ability than people with the A variant|
|For people with A variant (Better Endurance) Likely better at endurance running and better aerobic capacity. Tennis, dancing and participating in marathons are some endurance based activities|
|For people with G variant (Lower Endurance) Likely poor at endurance running Endurance based activities would require additional training and more effort.|
“Nutrigenetics, fitness genetics, health genetics are all nascent but rapidly growing areas within human genetics. The information provided herein is based on preliminary scientific studies and it is to be read and understood in that context.”
Since the start of Olympics in 776 BC, running has always been a remarkable event in the world of sport. This Rio 2016 is no exception and set to be another epic feast for running fans. The fundamental dimension of the Olympics is all about “Citius, Altius, Fortius” which translates to “Faster, Higher, stronger” and running itself abides by the same principle.
In the past, stories of sprinting successes by people of Jamaican heritage sparked interest in the genetic advantage that Jamaicans and people with West African ancestry might have, especially when it comes to raw muscle power.
[hr height="30" style="default" line="default" themecolor="1"]All of the diversity that is visible today among the 7 billion people on earth is the story of human genetic adaptation to their environment. For example, if the ancestors of certain people lived in hot and humid regions with significant sun exposure, they will have stronger skin pigmentation- which protects them from cancer causing UV rays. An example that is relevant to sports performance is that of ancestors who lived at higher altitudes above sea level. These places have lower levels of oxygen than what is found at sea level. As a result, their bodies have adaptations that make them efficient at extracting more oxygen out of the air they breath. All other things being equal, a person from higher altitude will have an advantage over someone from a lower altitude. Similarly, various other adaptations can be seen that offer specific advantages in various aspects of life. Of course, adaptations are only part of the story. The sheer human will to train and outcompete is the other part.
[hr height="30" style="default" line="default" themecolor="1"]
ACTN3 gene is the most widely studied sports performance related gene. The ACTN3 gene encodes instructions for making a specific muscle protein, ?-actinin-3, found exclusively in fast twitch muscle fibres. This protein is essential for greater strength & to protect against muscle damage which provides the benefits needed in speed or power based activity, such as sprinting or weight lifting.
There are different versions of ACTN3 gene and which version you carry determines how
much of the alpha-actinin-3 p
rotein you produce in your fast twitch muscle fibres. Some people have a fully functional version
that produces lot of alpha- actinin 3, commonly called the R allele. This is associated with a boost in muscle strength and sprint performance.
And some people have a non- working version of the gene, commonly called
the X allele that prevents it from making this protein and such people lack this protein in their muscles. Lack of this protein does not cause any harm to the body, but it does affect the level of athletic performance. It is probably close to impossible for someone who lacks this protein to reach the elite levels of sports performance especially in power based act
ivities, except for very rare cases.
Studies have indicated that people lacking the R allele of ACTN3 may have an advantage in endurance based sports. Such people also seem to have higher proportion of slow twitch muscle fibres and reduced fatigue which is advantageous in endurance performance.
Want to know if you have the “gene for speed?” Xcode’s fitness genetics test can tell you what versions of the ACTN3 gene you have in your DNA. You can also learn about how your genes may influence other traits, including your risk for certain diseases.