The hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) is associated with the synthesis of hepatic lipase enzyme (LIPC) which catalyzes the hydrolysis of fat. Hepatic lipase converts intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) to low-density lipoprotein (LDL).It is expressed in the liver and in the adrenal glands. Specific alleles of this gene are known to either increase or decrease hepatic lipase levels, and due to linkage disequilibrium, the levels of lipoprotein lipase, which is associated with variations in the plasma HDL levels.  People with the T variant of the gene are shown to be associated with higher baseline HDL levels.

Does your 23andme, Ancestry DNA, FTDNA raw data have LIPC gene variant information?

CHIP VersionLIPC SNPs
23andMe (Use your 23andme raw data to know your LIPC Variant)
v1 23andmePresent
v2 23andmePresent
v3 23andmePresent
v4 23andmePresent
V5 23andme (current chip)Present
AncestryDNA  (Use your ancestry DNA raw data to know your LIPC Variant)
v1 ancestry DNAPresent
V2 ancestry DNA (current chip)Present
Family Tree DNA  (Use your FTDNA raw data to know your LIPC Variant)
OmniExpress microarray chipPresent

Association with Weight Loss Upon Exercise:

People with the C variant of the gene were associated with reduction in weight, body fat and visceral fat.

Association with Plasma Lipoprotein Levels upon Exercising (atherogenic effects):

In a study investigating the effects of endurance training on plasma lipoprotein levels, people with the C variant of the gene have been found to be associated with exercise mediated reduction in VLDL and increase in HDL. The benefit of exercise was found to be more in men with CC genotype than women.

Association with Childhood Obesity:

In a meta-analysis study conducted on children, boys with the T allele had a higher BMI and higher risk of obesity. In another study, boys with the T variant of the gene were found to be associated with higher HDL level on high fat intake.

Association with Dietary Fat intake:

In a study conducted to determine gene-nutrient interactions, people with the T variant on a low fat diet (less than 30% of energy from fat) have been shown to be associated with higher HDL levels. In a study conducted to identify how Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians in Singapore were exposed to similar environment but where Asian Indians had three times the rates of myocardial infarction compared to Chinese, found that a complex interplay of environmental and genetic factors gave rise to these ethnic differences. A high fat diet was shown to be associated with higher serum triglyceride and lower HDL-cholesterol concentrations in people with the T variant while those with the C variant were shown to be associated with lower serum triglyceride and higher HDL cholesterol under the same dietary conditions. People with the T variant of the gene may have an impaired adaptation to a high fat diet, increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease.

Association with Insulin Sensitivity:

In a study conducted on the LIPC gene variant and insulin sensitivity, the baseline insulin sensitivity was found to be similar between the gene variants but, upon exercising, people with the C variant were shown to be associated with higher insulin sensitivity. In a similar study, men with the T variant were shown to be associated with an improvement in insulin sensitivity when MUFA and carbohydrate rich are consumed instead of SFA fat. There was no association with women with the T variant and between diet and insulin sensitivity among men and women with the C variant.

GenotypePhenotypeRecommendation
CC[Limitation] More likely to have lower baseline HDL [Advantage] More likely to have higher HDL level upon exercising [Advantage] More likely to have higher HDL on high fat diet [Advantage] More Likely to have improvement in insulin sensitivity upon exercising [Limitation] Less Likely to have improvement in insulin sensitivity when on MUFA and Carbohydrate rich dietLikely increase in HDL upon exercising Including exercise routines is beneficial to HDL levels and insulin sensitivity
CTSlightly improved insulin sensitivity upon exercisingLikely increase in HDL upon exercising Including exercise routines is beneficial to HDL levels and insulin sensitivity
TT[Advantage] More likely to have higher baseline HDL [Limitation] Less likely to have higher HDL level upon exercising [Limitation] More likely to have Lower HDL on high fat diet [Limitation] Less Likely to have improvement in insulin sensitivity upon exercising [Advantage] More Likely to have improvement in insulin sensitivity when on MUFA and Carbohydrate rich dietLikely increase in HDL level when on MUFA and Carbohydrate rich diet People with this gene variant would benefit from consuming low fat diet and carbohydrate rich diet


References
:

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12403660
  2. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/81/6/1429.full.pdf
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9114024
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23550552
  5. https://goo.gl/I8cAcl
  6. http://apjcn.nhri.org.tw/server/APJCN/14/s/72.pdf
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3053582/

Nutrigenetics, fitness genetics, health genetics are all nascent but rapidly growing areas within human genetics. The information provided herein is based on preliminary scientific studies and it is to be read and understood in that context.”

The Insulin signaling protein type 2 gene (INSIG2) is associated with the synthesis of INSIG2 protein which interacts with transcription factors, activating the synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids.  The variants of the INSIG2 gene have been shown to be associated with body fat accumulation. Specific alleles of this gene are known to either increase or decrease INSIG2 protein levels which are associated with subcutaneous fat accumulation upon exercising.  

Does your 23andme, Ancestry DNA, FTDNA raw data have INSIG2 gene variant information?

CHIP VersionINSIG2 SNPs
23andMe (Use your 23andme raw data to know your INSIG2 Variant)
v1 23andmePresent
v2 23andmePresent
v3 23andmePresent
v4 23andmePresent
V5 23andme (current chip)Present
AncestryDNA  (Use your ancestry DNA raw data to know your INSIG2 Variant)
v1 ancestry DNAPresent
V2 ancestry DNA (current chip)Present
Family Tree DNA  (Use your FTDNA raw data to know your INSIG2 Variant)
OmniExpress microarray chipPresent

Association with Baseline Subcutaneous fat and Obesity:

In the Framingham Heart Study, people with the C variant of the gene were shown to be associated with obesity, measured in terms of BMI. In a recent similar study conducted on a North Indian population, there was a significant association between INSIG2 gene polymorphism and severe obesity. In another study that analyzed the level of subcutaneous fat, women with the C variant of the gene were shown to be associated with higher levels of baseline subcutaneous fat.

Association with Fat Gain/Loss upon Strength Training:

Men with the C variant of the gene were associated with higher gain in subcutaneous fat upon resistance training while men with the G variant showed a loss in subcutaneous fat. In another study, men with the G variant of the allele were shown to be associated with Intramuscular (IMAT) volume in the upper arm after 12 weeks of training than for the subcutaneous fat. In a study on obese children who were on a weight loss program, children with the C variant of the gene were found to lose less weight than children with the G variant.

Association with Hypercholesterolemia: 

In a study conducted on Japanese women, the C variant of the gene was shown to have a protective effect on the progression of hypercholesterolemia when on a high fat diet. On an initial analysis in another study, women with the C variant of the gene showed a lower prevalence for hypercholesterolemia.

GenotypePhenotypeRecommendation
CC[Limitation] More likely to have higher BMI [Limitation] More likely to have higher subcutaneous fat upon resistance training [Advantage] Less likely to have hypercholesterolemia (Women)Likely increase in subcutaneous fat upon strength training Including fitness programs, other than strength training might be more beneficial Additional effort may be required to lose weight when compared to people with the G variant
CGModerate BMI and subcutaneous fat accumulation upon exercisingLikely increase in subcutaneous fat upon strength training Including fitness programs, other than strength training might be more beneficial Additional effort may be required to lose weight when compared to people with the G variant
GG[Advantage] More likely to have lower BMI [Advantage] More likely to have lower subcutaneous fat upon exercising [Limitation] More Likely to have hypercholesterolemia(women)Likely lower subcutaneous fat upon exercising Strength training has not been shown to be associated with increase in subcutaneous fat upon exercising. There is an increase in Intramuscular volume on training, which may benefit bodybuilders

References:

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2646703/
  2. https://www.pathway.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Pathway-Fit-MD_Watermarked_rs.pdf
  3. http://www.genesnp.com/
  4. http://www.wellnessgene.com/images/PDF/WellnessGeneSample-Test.pdf
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28160769
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23941145
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2646703/
  8. http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/57/3/623.long
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18570692
  10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2958931/

Nutrigenetics, fitness genetics, health genetics are all nascent but rapidly growing areas within human genetics. The information provided herein is based on preliminary scientific studies and it is to be read and understood in that context.”

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