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Abstract

Cardiometabolic diseases include cardiovascular conditions such as heart attack, stroke, angina, and metabolic conditions like insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Over the years, low-fat diets have been embraced due to their health effects. But emerging evidence shows that low-carb diets may be just as effective. Recent research has suggested that low-carb diets have been shown to improve cardiometabolic risk profile.

Low-Fat vs. Low-Carb

In the last 50 years, the medical community has encouraged low-fat diets to avoid the effects of saturated fats on the heart. So low-fat and fat-free foods have been majorly circulating on the grocery shelves; however, many of these foods happen to be high in processed carbs.

However, recently many studies and healthcare professionals have been challenging this thought process. This has led to the emergence of the ketogenic diet.

A ketogenic diet is a very low carb, high-fat diet, restricting intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, baked goods, candies, and sweets. 

Some versions may also limit healthy carb sources, such as grains, starchy vegetables, high-carb fruits, pasta, and legumes.

The diet is high in protein, fat, and healthy vegetables. They may increase good cholesterol levels and decrease blood pressure and triglyceride levels.

Other than helping with weight loss, low-carb diets increase good cholesterol levels, reduce blood sugar levels, lower triglyceride levels, and keep your metabolism in control.

Please note: Some harmful effects like fatigue, kidney stones, headache, loss in muscle tissue have been reported with low-carb diets. Consult a qualified nutritionist before making any significant dietary changes. 

Low-Carb Diets May Lower Risk of Cardiometabolic Disease Risk: A New Study

The Boston Children's Hospital led a large clinical trial to examine the effects of a low-carb diet on cardiometabolic disease risk. 

The study included 164 adults who were overweight or obese. The participants had already lost 10-14 percent of their body weight by undergoing a reduced-calorie diet.

The participants were randomly assigned one of these three diets:

The participants received their customized meals, thus ensuring that all of them rigidly followed the protocol. 

In all the prepared meals, saturated fats comprised 35% of the total fat present. In the low-carb meal, saturated fat contributed to 21% of the calories, and in the high-carb meal, it contributed to 7% of the calories.

Study Findings

Compared to the lower-fat higher-carb diets, the low-carb diet had the following benefits:

Though this study was done on adults, the researchers say that low-carb diets may benefit children too. In fact, pediatric cardiologists are also starting to embrace low-carb diets.

 Tips To Follow Low-Carb Diet 

Summary

References

Abstract

Diet is as important to mental health as it is to physical health. Previous studies have reported that the "traditional" dietary pattern, loaded with vegetable oil, meat, salt, and organ meat, is associated with increased odds of anxiety and depression in women. A recent study by researchers at the Ruhr-University Bochum and University of Duisburg, Germany, has reported higher depression scores among vegetarians than non-vegetarians.  

What is Depression?

Depression is a common yet serious mental condition that negatively impacts how you feel, the way you think and act. Depression occurs as a result of a combination of social, psychological, and biological factors. 

Some of the common symptoms of depression are :

The Link between Depression and Diet

Depression susceptibility is related to diet both directly and indirectly. Unhealthy eating patterns can cause mood swings. When you stick to a healthy diet, you are setting yourself up for fewer mood fluctuations. 

In particular, sugar is considered a major culprit. When consumed in higher quantities, it causes a temporary spike in 'feel-good' hormones like dopamine, which is not good for your health. In addition, the fleeting sugar rush followed by a crash is terrible for your mood.

Video

Link between Vegetarianism And Depression 

A German research team conducted a meta-analysis on depression and vegetarian diet. 

Meta-analysis refers to a procedure where the information collected from different experiments (with the same objective) is put together and studied. This combines the results of multiple studies to form a conclusion.

The analysis included data from 49,889 participants, of which 8,057 were vegetarians, and 41,832 were non-vegetarians. The large sample size makes this a robust study.

The researchers observed a higher depression score among vegetarians when compared to the non-vegetarians. But there was no causal relationship observed between them. That is, there was no proof that a vegetarian diet directly causes depressive moods. Depression didn't seem to increase a person's chance of adopting a vegetarian diet either. 

This study, however, showed that it might be more likely that people switch to a vegetarian diet after developing mental health issues. The researchers cite three possible reasons for this:

Dietary Recommendations To Improve Your Mental Health

Summary

References

  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0165032721007771
  2. https://www.health.harvard.edu/mind-and-mood/food-and-mood-is-there-a-connection

Sugar And Dopamine

What is it about sugary foods that just make our mouths water? There's actually a scientific explanation for this salivation!  The term 'sugar' refers to a class of carbohydrate molecules that include glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, dextrose, and starch.

So, how does your brain react to these sugar molecules? As soon as the sugar hits the tongue, it activates the sweet receptors. They, in turn, send a signal to the specific region of the cerebral cortex in the brain. The signal activates the reward system in the brain, which is a series of chemical reactions. This “reward” is communicated through the release of dopamine, which is popularly known as the “happy hormone.” 

The Food-Reward System

Incidentally, food-reward is a common form of animal training routines. An animal is rewarded with a treat when it performs certain actions, and animal trainers routinely use this programming of food-reward in zoos and entertainment venues and other animal training facilities. Basically, when you feel this sense of reward, your brain motivates you to "do it again"!

Interestingly, food is not the only thing that activates this reward system. Drugs, sexual behavior, and socializing have all been studied to stimulate this sense of reward. 

Dopamine Overdrive

While the reward system induces pleasurable feelings, overactivation of this system is really not good for the body! Overconsumption of drugs can send our body into dopamine overdrive, which leads to the sense of 'feeling high.' 

Non-sugary foods, like your veggies, have no effect on dopamine. Thus, when you eat a balanced meal every day, your dopamine levels begin to level out. This will make you want to include more varieties of foods in your diet. How does this happen?

Our brains are tuned to be attentive to different kinds of tastes for two reasons - to be able to detect spoilt food and to seek out different nutrients our body needs for healthy functioning. 

With sugar-rich foods, the dopamine levels never level out, and as a result, we do not tend to seek new foods. This can put you at risk for health conditions like diabetes and obesity, and various nutritional deficiencies. 

sugar and dopamine

Genetics and Sweet Taste Preference

Your preference for sweet foods is influenced by the sweet taste receptors in your tongue. Their expression, in turn, is influenced by the TAS1R2 and TAS1R3 genes. If you have a higher expression of the sweet taste receptors, you are likely to be more sensitive to the sweet taste and hence consume less sweet foods. 

Getting a Genetic Test

You can identify your tendency to prefer a specific taste by studying your genetic makeup. All you need is your genetic ancestry test raw data to get started! You can upload this file and order a nutrition report.

Xcode Life then analyzes your raw data in detail to provide you with comprehensive nutrition analysis, including your genetic preference for various tastes.

Video

Does your face turn red after a couple of sips of wine? Do you sense facial flushing whenever you go out for drinks? This facial flushing is technically known as the alcohol flush reaction. It is caused by a genetic fault known as ALDH2 deficiency or Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 deficiency.

Nearly 36% of the East Asian population has ALDH2 deficiency. Due to its high prevalence among Asians, it is also called the Asian Glow.

Alcohol Flush Reaction

What is this deficiency, and what does drinking have to do with it? 

It's all linked to how your body processes alcohol. When you drink, most of the alcohol is taken to the liver and converted into acetaldehyde by an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase. Acetaldehyde is a dangerous chemical compound, classified as a group 1 carcinogen, or cancer-causing substance, by the WHO. A build-up of acetaldehyde takes a bad toll on the body.

alcohol flush reaction

But, don't worry, our body has a way to fight this. The savior is the ALDH2 enzyme, which converts the harmful acetaldehyde to acetic acid. Acetic acid is not harmful to the cells. But this defense mechanism doesn't guarantee a free pass to drink all you want. If you're ALDH2 deficient, the conversion of acetaldehyde to acetic acid happens at an extremely slow pace. This may result in a rapid build-up of acetaldehyde in the body. Other than a dreadful hangover, this can also cause flushing, headaches, vomiting, and heart palpitations.

alcohol flush reaction

The major concern is the increase in the risk of esophageal and head and neck cancer due to acetaldehyde accumulation. According to a study, if an ALDH2 deficient person drinks less than two cans of beer every day, the risk of esophageal cancer is 40 times higher than a normal person. If the same person drinks more than two cans a day, the risk increases by 400 times.  When combined with smoking, the risk further increases. The acetaldehyde produced by burning tobacco is seven times more than the amount from drinking.

Test For ALDH2 Deficiency At Home

You can find out all by yourself. All you need is a band-aid and some strong alcohol or liquor.

  1. Apply some of the alcohol on a band-aid.
  2. Relax and stretch your arm out like you’re showing off your muscles.
  3. Put the band-aid on your arm and wait for 15 minutes. 
  4. Remove the band-aid when it’s time. If you find some redness, you’re likely to be deficient.

This is obviously not a 100% accurate diagnosis. 

If you are looking for a diagnosis, a genetic test would be the way to go!

Alcohol Flush/ALDH2 Deficiency Genetic Test

Genetic tests can help find out if you carry faulty genes that may increase your risk for alcohol flush. Most genetic tests provide your DNA information in the form of a text file called the raw DNA data. This data may seem like Greek and Latin to you.


We can help you out at Xcode Life and interpret all this information for you. All you have to do is upload your raw data and order a nutrition report. Xcode Life then analyzes your raw data in detail to provide you with comprehensive nutrition analysis, including details on Alcohol Flush Reaction!

Video

What Is Coenzyme Q10?

Coenzyme Q10 also called Ubiquinol is a natural antioxidant found in all cells of the body. It plays an important role in metabolism. It is a coenzyme, meaning it helps enzymes work more effectively. 

CoQ10 is stored in the powerhouse of the cell, the mitochondria. Mitochondria are responsible for producing energy. This coenzyme plays a major role in mitochondrial bioenergetics. It helps transport electrons in the mitochondria to facilitate the process of producing ATP, which is the main source of energy for cells. 

As an antioxidant, CoQ10 protects the cells from oxidative damage by neutralizing free radicals. Oxidative damage can lead to inflammation, tissue damage, and cell death. 

CoQ10 levels are higher in the brain, heart, kidneys, muscle, and liver. These are the organs that have many mitochondria as they need a lot of energy for functioning. 

CoQ10 is found in two forms, ubiquinol, and ubiquinone. Ubiquinol is the active form and performs various functions like reducing oxidative damage. Ubiquinone is the oxidized version.

Effects of Low CoQ10 Levels

CoQ10 is naturally produced in the body. The levels of CoQ10 decrease with age. Several disease conditions also interfere with the levels of CoQ10. In these cases, people usually take CoQ10 in the form of supplements.  

People with CoQ10 deficiency experience physical fatigue and muscle weakness, even while doing less intense physical activities like walking. It can also lead to mental fatigue, affect your memory and ability to concentrate. 

CoQ10 deficiency limits the body’s ability to fight against oxidative damage and this may lead to faster progression of health conditions linked to oxidative stress.

Lower levels of CoQ10 have been linked to nutrient deficiencies, heart diseases in patients who take statin drugs to lower their cholesterol levels, and other disease conditions.

Coenzyme Q10 and Exercise

Research shows that CoQ10 supplementation can improve power, recovery after exercise, reduce oxidative damage, and increase energy. 

Training can lead to oxidative stress in the muscles. CoQ10, being an antioxidant, can decrease oxidative stress in cells and improve mitochondrial function to provide energy and fuel your workout.

Studies show that CoQ10 can increase exercise performance by reducing fatigue and increasing power.

Genetics of Coenzyme Q10 Levels

Mutations in genes involved in CoQ10 production are found to interfere with levels of CoQ10.

NQO1 Gene

The NQO1 gene encodes for the NAPDH quinone dehydrogenase 1 protein. This protein is involved in the reduction of Coenzyme Q10. Variations in this gene affect levels of CoQ10.

rs1800566

The CoQ10 levels of TC carriers were found to be significantly lower than CC carriers.

GenotypeImplication
CC
TCLower CoQ10 levels than CC genotype
TTLower levels of CoQ10

Non-Genetic Factors That Affect CoQ10 Levels

Age: Production of CoQ10 naturally in the body decreases with age.

Health conditions: Certain nutritional deficiencies, heart disease, brain disorders, cancer, diabetes are associated with low levels of CoQ10.

Statin medications: Statin is commonly used to treat high cholesterol in people with heart diseases. Statins block the production of CoQ10 and can lead to CoQ10 deficiency. 

Recommendations

CoQ10 is naturally produced in the body. People with certain disease conditions take supplements to help with treatment. Athletes generally take CoQ10 supplements to improve their performance. CoQ10 can be supplemented through diet or medication.

Dietary Sources of CoQ10

Food sources of CoQ10 include

Coenzyme Q10 Supplements

There are various CoQ10 supplements available in the market in the form of tablets. CoQ10 supplements are generally safe and have minimal side effects. 

Make sure to talk to a healthcare professional about the correct dosage and possible side effects of taking these supplements. CoQ10 supplements may interfere with the effectiveness of certain other drugs like blood thinners, blood pressure medications, and thyroid medication that are used to treat health conditions.

Summary

  1. Coenzyme Q10 is a natural antioxidant found in all cells of the body. It plays an important role in energy production processes that take place in the mitochondria. It also protects cells from oxidative damage.
  2. Lower levels of CoQ10 are linked to certain disease conditions and can lead to muscle weakness, increased physical and mental fatigue. Lower levels also limit the body’s ability to fight oxidative damage. 
  3. CoQ10 supplementation is found to improve power, recovery after exercise, reduce oxidative damage, and increase energy levels. It can protect cells from oxidative stress that increases on training. 
  4. Carriers of the TC genotype of SNP rs1800566 found in the NQO1 gene were found to have significantly lower CoQ10 levels than the CC genotype.
  5. Production of CoQ10 decreases with age. Statin medications and health conditions like heart disease, cancer, brain disorders, and diabetes are associated with lower levels of CoQ10. 
  6. CoQ10 can be supplemented through diet or medication. CoQ10 rich food sources include organ meat, fatty fish, soybeans, broccoli, oranges, lentils, peanuts, sesame seeds, and pistachios. Talk to a healthcare professional to find the correct dosage of supplement suited for your body and to avoid potential side effects. 

Video

References

https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/coenzyme-q10

https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/coenzyme-q10#TOC_TITLE_HDR_1

https://www.webmd.com/diet/supplement-guide-coenzymeq10-coq10#1

https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements-coenzyme-q10/art-20362602

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21774831/

Abstract

Coffee is a popular beverage consumed worldwide. The main constituent of coffee is caffeine, a natural stimulant that helps you stay alert by stimulating the central nervous system. 

Previous studies indicate that caffeine consumption has various health benefits such as offering protection against diabetes and heart disease, improving gut bacteria, and reducing the risk of cancer. However, a recent study suggests that individuals with a risk of cardiovascular disease subconsciously reduce their coffee consumption.

Is caffeine bad for your heart?

While some studies suggest that caffeine consumption can help maintain heart health and blood vessel function, others report the opposite. 

A study found that consuming large amounts of coffee regularly contributes to aortic stiffness. Aorta is the largest blood vessel in the human body, carrying blood from the heart.

Factors that influence the impact caffeine has on your heart health include:

Is caffeine consumption genetic?

CYP1A2 is the most commonly researched gene for caffeine metabolism. This gene produces the CYP enzymes that are involved in clearing out caffeine from the body. Some people have an error in this gene, which results in impaired caffeine metabolism. Studies suggest that this leads to an increased risk of heart attacks.

Heart Symptoms May Influence How Much Coffee People Drink

A research study, led by Professor Elina Hyppönen, examined the effect of cardiovascular health on coffee consumption. 

The study was conducted using information from 390,435 European ancestry participants, aged 39 to 73 years, taken from the UK Biobank. 

Participants reported their regular coffee consumption. The following parameters were also noted:

What Did The Study Observe?

Participants with chest pains, hypertension, or irregular heartbeats were more likely to be non-habitual or decaffeinated coffee drinkers compared to those who did not report such symptoms.

In genetic analyses, a higher resting heart rate was linked with increased chances of an individual being a decaffeinated coffee drinker. Higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures were also associated with lower caffeinated coffee consumption. These causal relationships were supported by consistent evidence from genetic studies.

The Conclusion Of The Study

The findings of the study showed that genetics actively regulates our coffee consumption and protects us from consuming too much. It explains how people subconsciously self-monitor caffeine levels based on how high their blood pressure is, which is likely a result of a protective genetic mechanism.

This implies that someone who consumed high amounts of coffee is likely to be more genetically tolerant to caffeine, as compared to someone who drank less coffee. Conversely, a non-coffee drinker, or an individual who consumes decaffeinated coffee, is more prone to the ill effects of caffeine.

Consuming Caffeine The Safe Way

Summary

What is Cilantro?

Cilantro is a herb popularly used in cooking. The names cilantro and coriander are commonly used interchangeably. Both cilantro and coriander come from the same plant species, Coriandrum sativum. The nutrient profiles of the plant and seed are different.

In North America, cilantro refers to the leaves and stem, while coriander refers to the seeds. In other countries like India, coriander refers to the leaves and stem, and the seeds are called coriander seeds. Cilantro is the Spanish word for coriander.

Cilantro has a fragrant, citrusy flavor. The coriander seeds have a warm, spicy, earthy aroma with a hint of citrus. It is usually paired with cumin and used as a base ingredient for making spice mixes.

What is Cilantro Taste Aversion?

Even though cilantro is properly used in several cuisines all over the world, some people do not like the taste of it. They find the taste soapy and revolting. This is termed as Cilantro Taste Aversion.

Even the famous American chef, Julia Child, did not have a liking for cilantro. She said the best way to deal with it in food is to pick it up and throw it on the floor.

Cilantro contains several aldehydes. Aldehydes taste soapy in nature. People with cilantro taste aversion perceive the taste of these aldehydes found in cilantro.

The number of people with this aversion is less in Central America and India, where this herb is very popular. Nearly 20% of the East Asian population are found to experience the soapy-taste of cilantro.

Why do some people hate the taste of cilantro but others don’t?
The answer to this question lies in genes.

Genetics and Cilantro Taste Aversion

Cilantro taste preference can be explained by genetics. The olfactory receptors influence our sense of smell, which directly alters our taste perception. Variations in olfactory-receptor genes can affect the way we perceive the taste of certain food items.

OR6A2 Gene

The OR6A2 gene is an olfactory-receptor gene. It carries instructions for the production of Olfactory Receptor Family 6 Subfamily A Member 2 protein. This protein has a high-binding affinity to soapy-flavored aldehydes like the ones found in cilantro. Individuals with an aversion to the taste of cilantro are found to have a variation in this gene.

rs72921001
rs72921001 is a single nucleotide polymorphism or SNP in the OR6A2 gene. Individuals with the A allele of this gene are at a lower risk of detecting a soapy taste.

Recommendations

The best way to deal with the soapy taste of cilantro is to avoid using it in meals or picking it out of your plate as Julia Child said.

Certain other ways to deal with this include

Some restaurants use a mix of parsley, tarragon, and dill. Lime of lemon zest can be used to substitute for the bright, citrusy flavor of cilantro. Carrot tops, mint, basil, or Thai basil are also used in certain dishes.

Microgreens are becoming increasingly popular. Micro cilantro tastes less soapy than mature cilantro leaves. Coriander seeds may also have a more palatable flavor compared to cilantro.

Crushing cilantro may help eliminate the soapy-tasting aldehydes. Using cilantro in chutneys and sauces dampens the soapy flavor and can help you get used to the herb.

A walkthrough of the Xcode Life Gene Nutrition report

Xcode Life's Gene Nutrition report covers traits like cilantro taste aversion and 40 other traits.

Summary

  1. Cilantro is a herb commonly used in several cuisines around the world. Generally, cilantro has a fresh, fragrant, and citrusy flavor. Cilantro generally refers to the leaves and stem of the plant, while coriander refers to the seeds.
  2. Certain people do not have a liking for cilantro. It tastes like soap to them. This is because they taste the aldehydes present in this herb. The aldehydes give it a soapy taste that is perceived by certain people.
  3. Cilantro taste aversion is linked to a change in the OR6A2 gene. This is an olfactory receptor gene. Olfactory receptors are responsible for the sense of smell which affects taste also.
  4. People who do not like the taste of cilantro are found to have the CC genotype of SNP rs72921001 found in the OR6A2 gene. Carries of the A allele are at a lower risk of detecting this soapy taste.
  5. The best way to deal with this taste aversion is to avoid the herb. You can also use other herbs as substitutes while cooking.

References

https://arxiv.org/abs/1209.2096
https://flavourjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2044-7248-1-22
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/277627
https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/cilantro-vs-coriander#TOC_TITLE_HDR_3
https://www.britannica.com/story/why-does-cilantro-taste-like-soap-to-some-people
https://blog.23andme.com/23andme-research/cilantro-love-hate-genetic-trait/
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/voraciously/wp/2019/07/08/how-to-manage-or-even-conquer-your-cilantro-hatred/

Abstract

Obesity, a disorder prevalent among today’s population, is a major influencer of human health and wellness. Research suggests that your gut microbial community could influence the risk for obesity. This hypothesis was supported by a recent study that was aimed at developing therapeutics for individuals struggling with weight loss. The study also provides an insight into the role of Gastrokine-1 protein (GKN-1) in obesity. The results suggest that with more research, therapies that focus on the activity of GKN-1 can be developed to provide potential solutions to obesity.

Obesity - An Introduction

Obesity is a disorder characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the body. Body Mass Index (BMI) is an inexpensive and easy screening method for weight category - underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese.

A BMI over or equal to 30 indicates obesity in adults. BMI is calculated by dividing a person's weight by the square of their height.

Common Causes of Obesity

Health Implications of Obesity

Gastro Kinase-1 Protein and Obesity

Gastro Kinase-1 (GKN-1) is a protein that is produced exclusively and abundantly in the stomach. This protein is resistant to digestion. It passes through the intestine and interacts with microbes in the gut. A study published in Scientific Reports, co-authored by researchers at Indiana University School of Medicine, has reported that GKN-1 levels are linked to body composition.

The study examined the effects of the presence and absence of GKN-1 protein on body composition. It was conducted on two groups of mouse models - one with the GKN-1 protein and one without it. The following parameters were considered:

It was found that mouse models without the GKN-1 protein weighed less and had higher percentages of lean mass, and lower body fat, despite consuming the same amount of food.

Further, when on a high-fat diet, the mice without the GKN-1 protein showed resistance to increased body fat, weight gain, and hepatic inflammation - a causative factor of liver disease. These effects were noticeable and consistent in both the sexes.

Researchers observed that the absence of the GKN-1 protein didn’t result in any adverse effects like cancer, diabetes, loss of appetite, malabsorption, or inflammation.

At this stage, however, it cannot be concluded that blocking GKN-1 protein can prevent obesity. Researchers seem to think of it as a potential therapeutic solution, to improve the quality of life for obese patients.

Recommendations To Boost Your Gut Bacteria

Summary

References

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/05/210504154601.htm
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-88928-8
https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight
https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/adult/causes.html
https://ourworldindata.org/obesity
https://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/adult_bmi/index.html
https://atlasbiomed.com/blog/link-between-gut-bacteria-and-weight-loss/#change-gut-microbes
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5470704/
https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/improve-gut-bacteria
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5082693/
https://www.cdc.gov/genomics/resources/diseases/obesity/obesedit.htm

Fish oil is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements. It is rich in omega-3 fatty acids. It has been known to protect against heart diseases, lower blood pressure, and lower triglyceride levels. According to a recent study published in the journal PLOS Genetics, the beneficial effect of fish oil on triglycerides is seen only in people with a certain type of genetic makeup.

What are Triglycerides?

Triglycerides (TG) are the most common type of fats present in your body. TG are commonly found in foods like butter, margarines, and oils. The extra calories that the body doesn’t need to use right away are also stored as triglycerides.

High triglyceride levels are considered to be a marker (indicator) for heart diseases. A blood sample reading of less than 150 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) is considered to be the normal level of TG. Higher levels of triglycerides may thicken the walls of the arteries, thereby increasing the risk of stroke and heart diseases.

Fish Oil

Fish oil is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids, a type of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which is very important for your heart health. Fish oil can be derived from consuming oily fish like mackerel and salmon or through supplements. Some fish oil products are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as prescription medications to lower triglycerides levels.

But, a recent study published in the journal PLOS Genetics claims that “taking fish oil only provides health benefits if you have the right genetic makeup.”

The Study

The study focussed on the effects of fish oil on triglyceride levels in the blood. The study also examined the levels of the other three blood lipids - high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol. All these types of fats (lipids) are biomarkers for heart diseases.

The study analyzed the data of 70,000 individuals taken from UK Biobank. The study cohort was divided into two - those who took fish oil supplements (around 11,000) and those who didn’t.

After running over 64 million tests, it was found that people on fish supplements who experienced a reduction in their triglyceride levels had a specific genotype of the GJB2 gene.

Individuals with the AG genotype who took fish oil decreased their triglycerides.

The study further revealed that individuals with the AA genotype who took fish oil had slightly elevated levels of triglycerides. The effects of fish oil on triglycerides in people with GG type could not be determined as present in the variant rs112803755. So, if you have your DNA raw data file with you, you can look up this rsID to find out your genotype!

Learn How To Use Xcode Life’s Gene Tool To Look Up Your Genotype here!

Recommendations to Reduce Your Triglyceride Levels

Apart from fish oil, there are also other effective methods to reduce your triglyceride levels. Some of them include:

Limiting your sugar intake

Excess sugar in your diet is turned into triglycerides, elevated levels of which are not good for your heart health. According to a study, replacing your sugary beverages with water can decrease your triglyceride levels by as much as 29 mg/dL.

Adopting a low-carb diet

The extra carbs in your diet are also converted into and stored as triglycerides. Following a low-carb diet has proven to be much more effective than following a low-fat diet in terms of reducing triglyceride levels.

Exercising regularly

HDL cholesterol is a type of good cholesterol. Increasing HDL levels can both help reduce triglyceride levels as well as counteract the effects of high triglycerides. Jogging for even two hours per week can reduce the levels of triglycerides.

Limiting Alcohol Intake

Alcohol is high in sugar and calories. If they are not used up by the body, they are converted into triglycerides. According to studies, even moderate alcohol consumption can increase your triglyceride levels by as much as 53%. This applies to people with normal triglyceride levels as well!

Summary

  1. High triglyceride levels are a marker for many heart diseases, as they contribute to plaque build-up in the arteries.
  2. Fish oil is one of the commonly used supplements and is rich in omega-3 fatty acids. It has been known to reduce triglyceride levels.
  3. According to a study, the effect of fish oil on triglyceride levels was found to be beneficial only in people with a specific genetic makeup.
  4. Upon analyzing the data of 70,000 people, the study found that fish oil reduces triglyceride levels only in people with the AG genotype of the GJB gene.
    Do You Carry The Beneficial AG Genotype? Find Out Using Xcode Life’s Gene Tool!
  5. Further, people with the AA genotype experienced a slight increase in triglyceride levels upon fish oil consumption.
  6. Some other effective ways of reducing triglyceride levels are regular exercising, lowering the consumption of high-sugar and high-carb foods, and limiting alcohol intake.

Use Xcode Life’s Gene Tool to find out your genetic marker for lowering triglyceride levels with fish oil supplements

References:

  1. Should you take fish oil? Depends on your genotype
  2. GJB2 gene
  3. Substituting water for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces circulating triglycerides
  4. A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity
  5. Effects of long-term, self-monitored exercise on the serum lipoprotein and apolipoprotein profile in middle-aged men
  6. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on hypertriglyceridemia

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