One of the most essential nutrients for the growth and development of the human body vitamin C. This is also known as ascorbic acid or ascorbate. This water-soluble vitamin cannot be made by the body and has to be obtained from the foods we eat.
Here are some of the significant functions of vitamin C:
Since vitamin C helps in producing collagen, it is a popular and widely used in the beauty and cosmetic industry.
Vitamin C deficiency is quite rare in developed countries. However, a very badly chosen diet and factors like excessive smoking or drug abuse can result in lowered vitamin C levels in the body and result in a variety of health problems.
Scurvy is a disease that has been known since the Egyptian and Greek times. It is caused by vitamin C deficiency and results in anemia, bleeding in gums, lowered Red Blood Cell count, and reduced healing rates. Scurvy can turn fatal if untreated.
The story of the discovery of vitamin C starts in the large vessels that carried Vasco da Gama and his sailors into the Indian and Pacific oceans in 1499. It is mentioned that Vasco da Gama lost two-thirds of his sailors to scurvy.
Similarly, Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer lost 80% of his crew while crossing the Pacific ocean in 1520.
Scurvy remained one of the biggest reasons for sailor-deaths between the 1400s and 1700s.
James Lind was a surgeon in the UK Royal Navy and he started experimenting by giving two oranges and one lemon to a group of sailors and comparing their health with the others who did not receive the same.
He noticed that the sailors who received the oranges and lemon did not fall sick and were healthier than the rest of the crew members. He published his work on this experiment in 1753.
After that, sailing crew members were regularly provided with fresh lemon juice as a way to prevent them from falling sick. Many ports also had fruit trees growing abundantly for sailors and crew members to consume fruits when they anchored.
Vitamin C was finally identified in 1932 and is one of the first vitamins to be made on an industrial scale.
Vitamin C cannot be made by the body and you will have to get it directly from the foods you eat.
Vitamin C is absorbed by the body in the form of ascorbic acid (80-90%) and dehydroascorbic acid (10-20%).
Once ascorbic acid enters the intestine, it is transported by a particular transport protein called Sodium Vitamin C cotransporter (SVCT). Such cotransporter proteins help molecules move from one place to another inside the body.
Now, these ascorbic acid molecules are transported into the cells in the body using another set of transport proteins and are then used up.
Dehydroascorbic acid uses a set of glucose transporters and enters the cells in the body. These are then converted to ascorbic acid and then made use of in the cells.
Many people make a conscious effort to consume fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin C but do not enjoy the benefits. Do you know why?
Vitamin C is a gentle nutrient that gets destroyed very easily. Most of the common cooking methods kill vitamin C before it reaches your plate.
Vitamin C is destroyed by overexposure to light, heat, and air.
In a clinical study done in Nigeria in the year 2013, the vitamin C retaining capacity in peppers was studied. Peppers have 15.39 mg/25 ml vit C in raw form. The vitamin C quantity went down to 9.96 mg after just 15 minutes of cooking and to 5.43 mg after 30 minutes of cooking.
It is better to get your sources of vitamin C in raw form. However, if you want to cook, make sure you cook in low heat for minimal time and with as little water as you can. Vitamin C is water-soluble and hence when you boil food in lots of water and throw away the excess water, you are throwing out its nutrient value too.
The below-recommended values of vitamin C needed every day is put together by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB).
Since Vitamin C is water-soluble, it does not get accumulated in the body and cause excess toxicity.
However, very large doses of vitamin C can result in symptoms like:
Most experts do mention that it is not easy to consume extremely high doses of vitamin C only through diet.
Only excessive consumption of supplements can cause the above effects.
Some of the top vitamin C deficiency signs to be aware of are:
Sodium Vitamin C cotransporter (SVCT) helps ascorbic acid reach the cells in the body. There are two genes SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 and their variations that create changes in vitamin C absorption levels.
Maintaining healthy ranges of vitamin C will keep you strong, active, and healthy.
Transmembrane Protease, Serine 6 (TMPRSS6) gene is associated with the synthesis of transmembrane protease, serine 6 (also known as matriptase-2), a liver serine protease. TMPRSS6 cleaves the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and down-regulates the iron hormone hepcidin, facilitating iron absorption. Inactivation of TMPRSS6 is associated with iron deficiency anemia.
There are two single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with this gene, rs855791 and rs4820268. Variations in this gene are shown to be associated with serum iron, hemoglobin transferrin saturation and erythrocyte traits.
Iron is essential for production of blood and most of the body's iron (70%) is found in the red blood cells of the blood called hemoglobin and in muscle cells called myoglobin. Hemoglobin transfers oxygen in the blood from the lungs to the tissues. Myoglobin, present in muscle cells, transports, stores and releases oxygen.
Iron is also a constituent of certain proteins (6%) and is essential for energy metabolism and for respiration. It is a component of enzymes that are involved in the synthesis of collagen as well as for certain neurotransmitters. Iron is also required for optimum immune function.
Nearly 25% of the iron is stored as ferritin in the body.
|CHIP Version||TMPRSS6 SNPs|
|23andMe (Use your 23andme raw data to know your TMPRSS6 Variant)|
|V5 23andme (current chip)||Present|
|AncestryDNA (Use your ancestry DNA raw data to know your TMPRSS6 Variant)|
|v1 ancestry DNA||Present|
|V2 ancestry DNA (current chip)||Present|
|Family Tree DNA (Use your FTDNA raw data to know your TMPRSS6 Variant)|
|OmniExpress microarray chip||Present|
In a study conducted on 2100 elderly women, people with the T variant of the gene (rs855791) were associated with lower levels of serum iron and hemoglobin. In another study conducted on 14,100 Danish men, men with the T variant were shown to be associated with lower levels of iron.
In another study conducted on about 600 people, the G variant of the gene (rs4820268) is associated with lower hepcidin levels than the A variant.
|TT||[Limitation] More likely to have lower serum iron and hemoglobin levels||Likely decrease in iron levels Include chicken liver, pumpkin seeds, spinach, tofu, almonds and baked beans. Since there is a genetic predisposition for lower levels of iron, it is recommended to consume more than the daily recommended amount of iron|
|CT||Moderate level of serum iron||No genetic predisposition for lower iron levels so daily recommended level of iron may be consumed. Men should consume 8mg/day, women between 19-50 years should consume 18 mg/day and women over 50 years should consume 5mg/day|
|CC||[Advantage] More likely to have higher serum iron and hemoglobin levels||No genetic predisposition for lower iron levels so daily recommended level of iron may be consumed. Men should consume 8mg/day, women between 19-50 years should consume 18 mg/day and women over 50 years should consume 5mg/day|
|GG||[Limitation] More likely to have lower hemoglobin levels||Likely decrease in iron levels Include chicken liver, pumpkin seeds, spinach, tofu, almonds and baked beans. Since there is a genetic predisposition for lower levels of iron, it is recommended to consume more than the daily recommended amount of iron|
|AG||Moderate level of hemoglobin||No genetic predisposition for lower iron levels so daily recommended level of iron may be consumed. Men should consume 8mg/day, women between 19-50 years should consume 18 mg/day and women over 50 years should consume 5mg/day|
|AA||[Advantage] More likely to have higher hemoglobin levels|
“Nutrigenetics, fitness genetics, health genetics are all nascent but rapidly growing areas within human genetics. The information provided herein is based on preliminary scientific studies and it is to be read and understood in that context.”